Thursday, June 9, 2016

A narcissistic Leader tends to move towards being a Fascist leader

  1. I was thinking how Narcissism the form we see manifest in Trump doesn't result in Democracy only Fascism. When you watch a Trump Rally what are you seeing?

    Everyone there is in love with Trump including Trump.


    When you witnessed or look at video of a Hitler rally what are you seeing?


    Everyone there is in Love with Hitler including Hitler


    Because of this democracy cannot come from this only Fascism. So, I would have to say that Trump brings a new form of fascism to the world.

    However, what we see in him we likely are going to see other places around the world too because the present day appears to be creating more and more

    narcissistic leaders which also tend to move the world towards Fascism. 

    So, why is a narcissistic person as a leader dangerous?

    a personality disorder, characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others.[1]

    It is the lack of empathy for others combined with extreme self importance that creates fascist rulings from a Narcissist leader with a narcissistic personality disorder. For example, to Trump he is not being racist when he criticizes the Judge, he is protecting his narcissistic viewpoint from attack. He has no empathy at all for those who don't love him, so he could just as easily put in jail or execute those who don't love him if he were president much like Hitler did too when he was the head of Germany and europe at that time.

    What creates narcissistic leaders?

    The Media

    So those who like Rock stars have adulation often turn into narcissists and if they turn into leaders they too also could become a new form of fascists in their rulings.

    So, because of this expect leaders who are "Rock Stars" to become tyrants sometimes if they become political leaders and are given real political power of life and death over peoples of the world.





  1.  begin quote from:

    Narcissism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes. The term originated from Greek mythology, where the young ...
  2. Narcissistic personality disorder - Wikipedia, the...
    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder, characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a ...


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Not to be confused with Egocentrism.
    Narcissus (1590s) by Caravaggio (Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome)
    Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes. The term originated from Greek mythology, where the young Narcissus fell in love with his own image reflected in a pool of water.
    Narcissism is a concept in psychoanalytic theory, which was popularly introduced in Sigmund Freud's essay On Narcissism (1914). The American Psychiatric Association has had the classification narcissistic personality disorder in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since 1968, drawing on the historical concept of megalomania.
    Narcissism is also considered a social or cultural problem. It is a factor in trait theory used in various self-report inventories of personality[1] such as the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. It is one of the three dark triadic personality traits (the others being psychopathy and Machiavellianism).
    Except in the sense of primary narcissism or healthy self-love, narcissism is usually considered a problem in a person's or group's relationships with self and others. Narcissism is not the same as egocentrism.



    Main article: History of narcissism
    The term "narcissism" comes from the Greek myth about Narcissus (Greek: Νάρκισσος, Narkissos), a handsome Greek youth who, according to Ovid, rejected the desperate advances of the nymph Echo. These advances eventually led Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water. Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus "lay gazing enraptured into the pool, hour after hour," and finally changed into a flower that bears his name, the narcissus.[2][not in citation given]
    The concept of excessive selfishness has been recognized throughout history. In ancient Greece the concept was understood as hubris. It is only more recently that narcissism has been defined in psychological terms.[citation needed]
    • In 1752 Jean-Jacques Rousseau's play Narcissus: or the Self-Admirer was performed in Paris.[citation needed]
    • In 1898 Havelock Ellis, an English psychologist, used the term "Narcissus-like" in reference to excessive masturbation, whereby the person becomes his or her own sex object[3]
    • In 1899, Paul Näcke was the first person to use the term "narcissism" in a study of sexual perversions.[citation needed]
    • Otto Rank in 1911 published the first psychoanalytical paper specifically concerned with narcissism, linking it to vanity and self-admiration.[3]
    • Sigmund Freud published a paper on narcissism in 1914 called "On Narcissism: An Introduction".[4]
    • In 1923, Martin Buber published an essay "Ich und Du" (I and You), in which he pointed out that our narcissism often leads us to relate to others as objects instead of as equals.[citation needed]

    Traits and signs

    Life is a stage, and when the curtain falls upon an act, it is finished and forgotten. The emptiness of such a life is beyond imagination.[5]
    Alexander Lowen, describing
    the existence of a narcissist
    Four dimensions of narcissism as a personality variable have been delineated: leadership/authority, superiority/arrogance, self-absorption/self-admiration, and exploitativeness/entitlement.[6]
    A 2012 book on power-hungry narcissists suggests that narcissists typically display most, and sometimes all, of the following traits:[7]
    These criteria have been criticized because they presume a knowledge of intention (for example, the phrase "pretending to be").[8] Behavior is observable, but intention is not. Thus classification requires assumptions which need to be tested before they can be asserted as fact, especially considering multiple explanations could be made as to why a person exhibits these behaviors.

    Hotchkiss' seven deadly sins of narcissism

    Hotchkiss identified what she called the seven deadly sins of narcissism:[9]
    1. Shamelessness: Shame is the feeling that lurks beneath all unhealthy narcissism, and the inability to process shame in healthy ways.
    2. Magical thinking: Narcissists see themselves as perfect, using distortion and illusion known as magical thinking. They also use projection to dump shame onto others.
    3. Arrogance: A narcissist who is feeling deflated may reinflate by diminishing, debasing, or degrading somebody else.
    4. Envy: A narcissist may secure a sense of superiority in the face of another person's ability by using contempt to minimize the other person.
    5. Entitlement: Narcissists hold unreasonable expectations of particularly favorable treatment and automatic compliance because they consider themselves special. Failure to comply is considered an attack on their superiority, and the perpetrator is considered an "awkward" or "difficult" person. Defiance of their will is a narcissistic injury that can trigger narcissistic rage.
    6. Exploitation: Can take many forms but always involves the exploitation of others without regard for their feelings or interests. Often the other person is in a subservient position where resistance would be difficult or even impossible. Sometimes the subservience is not so much real as assumed.
    7. Bad boundaries: Narcissists do not recognize that they have boundaries and that others are separate and are not extensions of themselves. Others either exist to meet their needs or may as well not exist at all. Those who provide narcissistic supply to the narcissist are treated as if they are part of the narcissist and are expected to live up to those expectations. In the mind of a narcissist, there is no boundary between self and other.

    Clinical and research aspects

    Narcissistic personality disorder

    Narcissistic personality disorder affects an estimated 1% of the general population.[10][11]
    Although most individuals have some narcissistic traits, high levels of narcissism can manifest themselves in a pathological form as narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), whereby the patient overestimates his or her abilities and has an excessive need for admiration and affirmation. A revision of NPD took place in the DSM 5. In this revision, NPD saw dramatic changes to its definition. The general move towards a dimensional (personality trait-based) view of the Personality Disorders has been maintained.
    Some may have a limited or minimal capability of experiencing emotions.[12]

    Healthy narcissism

    Main article: Healthy narcissism
    Healthy narcissism is a structural truthfulness of the self,[clarification needed] achievement of self and object constancy,[clarification needed] synchronization between the self and the superego and a balance between libidinal and aggressive drives (the ability to receive gratification from others and the drive for impulse expression). Healthy narcissism forms a constant, realistic self-interest and mature goals and principles and an ability to form deep object relations.[13] A feature related to healthy narcissism is the feeling of greatness. This is the antithesis of insecurity or inadequacy.

    A required element within normal development

    Healthy narcissism might exist in all individuals. Freud says that this is an original state from which the individual develops the love object.[qualify evidence] He argues that healthy narcissism is an essential part of normal development.[4] According to Freud the love of the parents for their child and their attitude toward their child could be seen as a revival and reproduction of their own narcissism.[4] The child has an omnipotence of thought; the parents stimulate that feeling because in their child they see the things that they have never reached themselves. Compared to neutral observations, the parents tend to overvalue the qualities of their child. When parents act in an extreme opposite style and the child is rejected or inconsistently reinforced depending on the mood of the parent, the self-needs of the child are not met.[citation needed]
    Karen Horney saw the narcissistic personality as the product of a certain kind of early environment molding a certain kind of temperament. She did not see narcissistic needs and tendencies as inherent in human nature.[14] Craig Malkin calls a lack of healthy narcissism "echoism" after the nypmh Echo in the mythology of Narcissus.[15]

    In relation to the pathological condition

    Healthy narcissism has to do with a strong feeling of "own love" protecting the human being against illness. Eventually, however, the individual must love the other, "the object love to not become ill." The individual becomes ill as a result of the frustration created when he is unable to love the object.[16] In pathological narcissism such as the narcissistic personality disorder, the person’s libido has been withdrawn from objects in the world and produces megalomania. The clinical theorists Kernberg, Kohut and Millon all see pathological narcissism as a possible outcome in response to unempathic and inconsistent early childhood interactions. They suggested that narcissists try to compensate in adult relationships.[17] The pathological condition of narcissism is, as Freud suggested, a magnified, extreme manifestation of healthy narcissism.
    With regard to the condition of healthy narcissism, it is suggested that this is correlated with good psychological health. Self-esteem works as a mediator between narcissism and psychological health. Therefore, because of their elevated self-esteem, deriving from self-perceptions of competence and likability, high narcissists are relatively free of worry and gloom.[18] Other researchers suggested that healthy narcissism cannot be seen as ‘good’ or ‘bad’; however, it depends on the contexts and outcomes being measured. In certain social contexts such as initiating social relationships, and with certain outcome variables, such as feeling good about oneself, healthy narcissism can be helpful. In other contexts, such as maintaining long-term relationships and with other outcome variables, such as accurate self-knowledge, healthy narcissism can be unhelpful.[19]

    Commonly used measures

    Narcissistic Personality Inventory

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of narcissism in social psychological research. Although several versions of the NPI have been proposed in the literature, a forty-item forced-choice version (Raskin & Terry, 1988) is the one most commonly employed in current research. The NPI is based on the DSM-III clinical criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), although it was designed to measure these features in the general population. Thus, the NPI is often said to measure "normal" or "subclinical" (borderline) narcissism (i.e., in people who score very high on the NPI do not necessarily meet criteria for diagnosis with NPD).

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) is a widely used diagnostic test developed by Theodore Millon. The MCMI includes a scale for Narcissism. Auerbach compared the NPI and MCMI and found them well correlated, r(146) = 0.55, p < 0.001.[20] It should be noted that whereas the MCMI measures narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), the NPI measures narcissism as it occurs in the general population. In other words, the NPI measures "normal" narcissism; i.e., most people who score very high on the NPI do not have NPD. Indeed, the NPI does not capture any sort of narcissism taxon as would be expected if it measured NPD.[21]

    Empirical studies

    Within psychology, there are two main branches of research into narcissism: clinical and social psychology. These approaches differ in their view of narcissism, with the former treating it as a disorder, thus as discrete, and the latter treating it as a personality trait, thus as a continuum. These two strands of research tend loosely to stand in a divergent relation to one another, although they converge in places.
    Campbell and Foster (2007)[22] review the literature on narcissism. They argue that narcissists possess the following "basic ingredients":
    • Positive: Narcissists think they are better than others.[23]
    • Inflated: Narcissists' views tend to be contrary to reality. In measures that compare self-report to objective measures, narcissists' self-views tend to be greatly exaggerated.[24]
    • Agentic: Narcissists’ views tend to be most exaggerated in the agentic domain, relative to the communion domain.[clarification needed][23][24]
    • Special: Narcissists perceive themselves to be unique and special people.[25]
    • Selfish: Research upon narcissists’ behaviour in resource dilemmas supports the case for narcissists as being selfish.[26]
    • Oriented toward success: Narcissists are oriented towards success by being, for example, approach oriented.[clarification needed][27]
    Narcissists tend to demonstrate a lack of interest in warm and caring interpersonal relationships.[22] There are several ongoing controversies within narcissism literature, namely: whether narcissism is healthy or unhealthy; a personality disorder; a discrete or continuous variable; defensive or offensive; the same across genders; the same across cultures; and changeable or unchangeable.
    Campbell and Foster (2007) argue that self-regulatory strategies are of paramount importance to understanding narcissism.[22] Self-regulation in narcissists involves such things as striving to make one’s self look and feel positive, special, successful and important. It comes in both intra-psychic, such as blaming a situation rather than self for failure, and interpersonal forms, such as using a relationship to serve one’s own self. Some differences in self-regulation between narcissists and non-narcissists can be seen with Campbell, Reeder, Sedikides & Elliot (2000)[28] who conducted a study with two experiments. In each experiment, participants took part in an achievement task, following which they were provided with false feedback; it was either bogus success or failure. The study found that both narcissists and non-narcissists self-enhanced, but non-narcissists showed more flexibility in doing so. Participants were measured on both a comparative and a non-comparative self-enhancement strategy. Both narcissists and non-narcissists employed the non-comparative strategy similarly; however, narcissists were found to be more self-serving with the comparative strategy, employing it far more than non-narcissists, suggesting a greater rigidity in their self-enhancement. When narcissists receive negative feedback that threatens the self, they self-enhance at all costs, but non-narcissists tend to have limits.
    Sorokowski et al. (2015) showed that narcissism is related to the frequency of posting selfie-type pictures on social media. This relationship was stronger among men than women.[29]

    Heritability of narcissism utilizing twin studies

    Livesley et al. concluded, in agreement with other studies, that narcissism as measured by a standardized test was a common inherited trait.[30] Additionally, in similar agreement with those other studies, it was found that there exists a continuum between normal and disordered personality.
    The study subjects were 175 volunteer twin pairs (ninety identical, eighty-five fraternal) drawn from the general population. Each twin completed a questionnaire that assessed eighteen dimensions of personality disorder. The authors estimated the heritability of each dimension of personality by standard methods, thus providing estimates of the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causation.
    Of the eighteen personality dimensions, narcissism was found to have the highest heritability (0.64), indicating that the concordance of this trait in the identical twins was significantly influenced by genetics. Of the other dimensions of personality, only four were found to have heritability coefficients of greater than 0.5: callousness, identity problems, oppositionality and social avoidance.

    Stigmatising attitude of narcissists to psychiatric illness

    Arikan found that a stigmatising attitude to psychiatric patients is associated with narcissistic personality traits.[31]

    Narcissism in evolutionary psychology

    The concept of narcissism is used in evolutionary psychology in relation to the mechanisms of assortative mating, or the non-random choice of a partner for purposes of procreation.
    Evidence for assortative mating among humans is well established; humans mate assortatively regarding age, IQ, height, weight, nationality, educational and occupational level, physical and personality characteristics, and family relatedness.[32] In the "self seeking like" hypothesis, individuals unconsciously look for a mirror image of themselves in others, seeking criteria of beauty or reproductive fitness in the context of self-reference.
    Alvarez et al. found that facial resemblance between couples was a strong driving force among the mechanisms of assortative mating: human couples resemble each other significantly more than would be expected from random pair formation.[33] Since facial characteristics are known to be inherited, the "self seeking like" mechanism may enhance reproduction between genetically similar mates, favoring the stabilization of genes supporting social behavior, with no kin relationship among them.

    Narcissistic supply

    Main article: Narcissistic supply
    Narcissistic supply is a concept introduced into psychoanalytic theory by Otto Fenichel in 1938, to describe a type of admiration, interpersonal support or sustenance drawn by an individual from his or her environment and essential to their self-esteem.[34]
    The term is typically used in a negative sense, describing a pathological or excessive need for attention or admiration in codependents and the orally fixated, that does not take into account the feelings, opinions or preferences of other people.

    Narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury

    Narcissistic rage is a reaction to narcissistic injury, which is a perceived threat to a narcissist's self-esteem or self-worth. Narcissistic injury (or narcissistic scar) is a phrase used by Sigmund Freud in the 1920s; narcissistic wound and narcissistic blow are further, almost interchangeable terms.[35] The term narcissistic rage was coined by Heinz Kohut in 1972.
    Narcissistic rage occurs on a continuum from instances of aloofness, and expression of mild irritation or annoyance, to serious outbursts, including violent attacks.[36] Narcissistic rage reactions are not limited to personality disorders and may be also seen in catatonic, paranoid delusion and depressive episodes.[36] It has also been suggested that narcissists have two layers of rage. The first layer of rage can be thought of as a constant anger (towards someone else), with the second layer being a self-aimed wrath.[37]

    Narcissistic defences

    Main article: Narcissistic defences
    Narcissistic defences are those processes whereby the idealized aspects of the self are preserved, and its limitations denied.[38] They tend to be rigid and totalistic.[39] They are often driven by feelings of shame and guilt, conscious or unconscious.[40]

    Narcissistic abuse

    Main article: Narcissistic abuse
    Narcissistic abuse is a term that emerged in the late twentieth century, and became more prominent in the early 21st century because of the works of Alice Miller and other Neo-Freudians, rejecting psychoanalysis as being similar to the poisonous pedagogies.[41] Miller used "narcissistic abuse" to refer to a specific form of emotional abuse of children by what she considered narcissistic parents – parents who require the child to give up their own wants and feelings in order to serve the parent's needs for esteem, which constitutes narcissistic abuse.[42] The term has also come to be used more widely to refer to forms of abuse in adult relationships on the part of the narcissist.
    Self-help culture currently assumes that someone abused by narcissistic parenting as a child likely struggles with codependency issues in adulthood. An adult who is or has been in a relationship with a narcissist likely struggles with not knowing what constitutes a "normal" relationship.


    Masterson's subtypes (exhibitionist and closet)

    In 1993, James F. Masterson proposed two categories for pathological narcissism, exhibitionist and closet.[43] Both fail to adequately develop an age- and phase- appropriate self because of defects in the quality of psychological nurturing provided, usually by the mother. The exhibitionist narcissist is the one described in DSM-IV and differs from the closet narcissist in several important ways.
    The closet narcissist is more likely to be described as having a deflated, inadequate self-perception and greater awareness of emptiness within. The exhibitionist narcissist would be described as having an inflated, grandiose self-perception with little or no conscious awareness of the emptiness within. Such a person would assume that this condition was normal and that others were just like him.
    The closet narcissist seeks constant approval from others and appears similar to the borderline in the need to please others. The exhibitionist narcissist seeks perfect admiration all the time from others.

    Millon's variations

    Theodore Millon identified five variations of narcissist.[10] Any individual narcissist may exhibit none or one of the following:

    Other forms

    Acquired situational narcissism

    Acquired situational narcissism (ASN) is a form of narcissism that develops in late adolescence or adulthood, brought on by wealth, fame and the other trappings of celebrity. It was coined by Robert B. Millman, professor of psychiatry at the Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.
    ASN differs from conventional narcissism in that it develops after childhood and is triggered and supported by the celebrity-obsessed society. Fans, assistants and tabloid media all play into the idea that the person really is vastly more important than other people, triggering a narcissistic problem that might have been only a tendency, or latent, and helping it to become a full-blown personality disorder. "Millman says that what happens to celebrities is that they get so used to people looking at them that they stop looking back at other people."[44]
    In its presentation and symptoms, it is indistinguishable from narcissistic personality disorder, differing only in its late onset and its support by large numbers of others. "The lack of social norms, controls, and of people telling them how life really is, also makes these people believe they're invulnerable,"[45] so that the person with ASN may suffer from unstable relationships, substance abuse and erratic behaviour.
    A famous fictional character with ASN is Norma Desmond, the main character of Sunset Boulevard.


    Main article: Codependency
    Codependency is a tendency to behave in overly passive or excessively caretaking ways that negatively impact one's relationships and quality of life. Narcissists are considered to be natural magnets for the codependent. Rappoport identifies codependents of narcissists as "co-narcissists".[46]

    Collective or group narcissism

    Main article: Collective narcissism
    Collective narcissism (or group narcissism) is a type of narcissism where an individual has an inflated self-love of his or her own ingroup, where an "ingroup" is a group in which an individual is personally involved.[47] While the classic definition of narcissism focuses on the individual, collective narcissism asserts that one can have a similar excessively high opinion of a group, and that a group can function as a narcissistic entity.[47] Collective narcissism is related to ethnocentrism; however, ethnocentrism primarily focuses on self-centeredness at an ethnic or cultural level, while collective narcissism is extended to any type of ingroup beyond just cultures and ethnicities.[47][48]

    Conversational narcissism

    Conversational narcissism is a term used by sociologist Charles Derber in his book, The Pursuit of Attention: Power and Ego in Everyday Life.
    Derber observed that the social support system in America is relatively weak, and this leads people to compete mightily for attention. In social situations, they tend to steer the conversation away from others and toward themselves. "Conversational narcissism is the key manifestation of the dominant attention-getting psychology in America," he wrote. "It occurs in informal conversations among friends, family and coworkers. The profusion of popular literature about listening and the etiquette of managing those who talk constantly about themselves suggests its pervasiveness in everyday life."
    What Derber describes as "conversational narcissism" often occurs subtly rather than overtly because it is prudent to avoid being judged an egotist.
    Derber distinguishes the "shift-response" from the "support-response," as in the following two hypothetical conversation fragments:
    John: I'm feeling really starved.
    Mary: Oh, I just ate. (shift-response)
    John: I'm feeling really starved.
    Mary: When was the last time you ate? (support-response)

    Cultural narcissism

    In The Culture of Narcissism, Christopher Lasch defines a narcissistic culture as one where every activity and relationship is defined by the hedonistic need to acquire the symbols of wealth,[49] this becoming the only expression of rigid, yet covert, social hierarchies. It is a culture where liberalism only exists insofar as it serves a consumer society, and even art, sex and religion lose their liberating power.
    In such a society of constant competition, there can be no allies, and little transparency. The threats to acquisitions of social symbols are so numerous, varied and frequently incomprehensible, that defensiveness, as well as competitiveness, becomes a way of life. Any real sense of community is undermined—or even destroyed—to be replaced by virtual equivalents that strive, unsuccessfully, to synthesize a sense of community.

    Destructive narcissism

    Destructive narcissism is the constant exhibition of numerous and intense characteristics usually associated with the pathological narcissist but having fewer characteristics than pathological narcissism.[50]

    Malignant narcissism

    Main article: Malignant narcissism
    Malignant narcissism, a term first coined in a book by Erich Fromm in 1964,[51] is a syndrome consisting of a cross breed of the narcissistic personality disorder, the antisocial personality disorder, as well as paranoid traits. The malignant narcissist differs from one suffering from narcissistic personality disorder in that the malignant narcissist derives higher levels of psychological gratification from accomplishments over time (thus worsening the disorder). Because the malignant narcissist becomes more involved in this psychological gratification, in the context of the right conditions, the narcissist is apt to develop the antisocial, the paranoid, and the schizoid personality disorders. The term malignant is added to the term narcissist to indicate that individuals with this disorder have a powerful form of narcissism that has made them ill in the forms of paranoid and anti-social traits.

    Medical narcissism

    Medical narcissism is a term coined by John Banja in his book, Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism.[52][53]
    Banja defines "medical narcissism" as the need of health professionals to preserve their self-esteem leading to the compromise of error disclosure to patients.
    In the book he explores the psychological, ethical and legal effects of medical errors and the extent to which a need to constantly assert their competence can cause otherwise capable, and even exceptional, professionals to fall into narcissistic traps.
    He claims that:
    ...most health professionals (in fact, most professionals of any ilk) work on cultivating a self that exudes authority, control, knowledge, competence and respectability. It's the narcissist in us all—we dread appearing stupid or incompetent.

    Narcissism in the workplace

    Narcissism as a personality trait, generally assessed with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, is related to behavior in the workplace. For example, individuals high on narcissism are more likely to engage in counterproductive work behavior (CWB, behavior that harms organizations or other people in the workplace).[54] Although individuals high on narcissism might engage in more aggressive (and counterproductive) behaviors, they mainly do so when their self-esteem is threatened.[55] Thus narcissistic employees are more likely to engage in CWB when they feel threatened.[56] Individuals high in narcissism have fragile self-esteem and are easily threatened. One study found that employees who are high on narcissism are more likely to perceive the behaviors of others in the workplace as abusive and threatening than individuals who are low on narcissism.[57]
    The narcissistic manager will have two main sources of narcissistic supply: inanimate – status symbols like cars, gadgets or office views; and animate – flattery and attention from colleagues and subordinates.[58] Teammates may find everyday offers of support swiftly turn them into enabling sources of permanent supply, unless they are very careful to maintain proper boundaries.[59] The need to protect such supply networks will prevent the narcissistic managers from taking objective decisions;[60] while long-term strategies will be evaluated according to their potential for attention-gaining for the manager themself.[61]
    Organizational psychologist Alan Downs wrote a book in 1997 describing corporate narcissism.[62] He explores high-profile corporate leaders (such as Al Dunlap and Robert Allen) who, he suggests, literally have only one thing on their minds: profits. According to Downs, such narrow focus actually may yield positive short-term benefits, but ultimately it drags down individual employees as well as entire companies. Alternative thinking is proposed, and some firms now utilizing these options are examined. Downs' theories are relevant to those suggested by Victor Hill in his book, Corporate Narcissism in Accounting Firms Australia.[63]

    Primordial narcissism

    Psychiatrist Ernst Simmel first defined primordial narcissism in 1944.[64] Simmel's fundamental thesis is that the most primitive stage of libidinal development is not the oral, but the gastrointestinal one. Mouth and anus are merely to be considered as the terminal parts of this organic zone. Simmel terms the psychological condition of prenatal existence "primordial narcissism." It is the vegetative stage of the pre-ego, identical with the id. At this stage there is complete instinctual repose, manifested in unconsciousness. Satiation of the gastrointestinal zone, the representative of the instinct of self-preservation, can bring back this complete instinctual repose, which, under pathological conditions, can become the aim of the instinct.
    Contrary to Lasch, Bernard Stiegler argues in his book, Acting Out, that consumer capitalism is in fact destructive of what he calls primordial narcissism, without which it is not possible to extend love to others.[65]
    In other words, he is referring to the natural state of an infant as a fetus and in the first few days of its life, before it has learned that other people exist besides itself, and therefore cannot possibly be aware that they are human beings with feelings, rather than having anything to do with actual narcissism.

    Sexual narcissism

    Sexual narcissism has been described as an egocentric pattern of sexual behavior that involves an inflated sense of sexual ability and sexual entitlement. In addition, sexual narcissism is the erotic preoccupation with oneself as a superb lover through a desire to merge sexually with a mirror image of oneself. Sexual narcissism is an intimacy dysfunction in which sexual exploits are pursued, generally in the form of extramarital affairs, to overcompensate for low self-esteem and an inability to experience true intimacy.[66] This behavioral pattern is believed to be more common in men than in women and has been tied to domestic violence in men and sexual coercion in couples.[67][68] Hurlbert argues that sex is a natural biological given and therefore cannot be deemed as an addiction. He and his colleagues assert that any sexual addiction is nothing more than a misnomer for what is actually sexual narcissism or sexual compulsivity.[69] While Hurlbert writes mainly of sexual narcissism in men, Schoenewolf (2013) describes what he calls "gender narcissism" which occurs in both males and females who compensate for feelings of sexual inadequacy by becoming overly proud and obsessed with their masculinity or femininity.[70]

    Narcissistic parents

    Main article: Narcissistic parents
    Narcissistic parents demand certain behavior from their children because they see the children as extensions of themselves, and need the children to represent them in the world in ways that meet the parents’ emotional needs. This parenting 'style' most often results in estranged relationships with the children, coupled with feelings of resentment and self-destructive tendencies.[46]

    Narcissistic leadership

    Narcissistic leadership is a common form of leadership. The narcissism may be healthy or destructive although there is a continuum between the two. A study published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin suggests that when a group is without a leader, you can often count on a narcissist to take charge. Researchers found that people who score high in narcissism tend to emerge as group leader.[71]

    Popular culture

    According to recent cultural criticism, Narcissus has replaced Oedipus as the myth of our time. Narcissism is now seen to be at the root of everything from the ill-fated romance with violent revolution to the enthralled mass consumption of state-of-the-art products and the 'lifestyles of the rich and famous'
    Jessica Benjamin (2000), "The Oedipal Riddle," p. 233[72]
    Some critics contend that pop-culture has become more narcissistic in recent decades.[73] This claim is supported by scholarship indicating some celebrities hire "fake paparazzi",[74] the frequency with which "reality" programs populate the television schedules,[73] and the growth of an online culture in which digital media and the "will-to-fame" are generating a "new era of public narcissism [that] is mutating with new media forms."[75] In this analysis, narcissism, rather than being the pathologized property of a discrete personality type, has been asserted as a constituent cultural feature of an entire generation since the end of World War II.[76]
    Supporting the contention that American culture has become more narcissistic and that this is increasingly reflected in its cultural products is an analysis of US popular song lyrics between 1987 and 2007. This found a growth in the use of first-person singular pronouns, reflecting a greater focus on the self, and also of references to antisocial behavior; during the same period, there was a diminution of words reflecting a focus on others, positive emotions, and social interactions.[77][78] Similar patterns of change in cultural production are observable in other Western states. A linguistic analysis of the largest circulation Norwegian newspaper found that the use of self-focused and individualistic terms increased in frequency by 69 per cent between 1984 and 2005 while collectivist terms declined by 32 per cent.[78] References to narcissism and self-esteem in American popular print media have experienced vast inflation since the late 1980s.[78] Between 1987 and 2007 direct mentions of self-esteem in leading US newspapers and magazines increased by 4,540 per cent while narcissism, which had been almost non-existent in the press during the 1970s, was referred to over 5,000 times between 2002 and 2007.[78]
    Cross-cultural studies of differences in narcissism are rare. Instead, as there is a positive association between narcissism and individualism and a negative one between it and collectivism, these traits have been used as proxies for narcissism in some studies.[79] This approach, however, risks the misapplication of the concepts of individualism and collectivism to create overly-fixed, "caricature-like",[80] oppositional categories.[81] Nonetheless, one study looked at differences in advertising products between an individualistic culture, America, and a collectivist one, South Korea. In American magazine advertisements, it found, there was a greater tendency to stress the distinctiveness and uniqueness of the person; conversely the South Korean ones stressed the importance of social conformity and harmony.[79] This observation holds true for a cross-cultural analysis across a wide range of cultural outputs where individualistic national cultures produce more individualistic cultural products and collectivist national cultures produce more collectivist national products; these cultural effects were greater than the effects of individual differences within national cultures.[79]

    Fictional narcissists

    • Jay Gatsby, the eponymous character of F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel The Great Gatsby, "an archetype of self-made American men seeking to join high society," has been described as a "pathological narcissist" for whom the "ego-ideal" has become "inflated and destructive" and whose "grandiose lies, poor sense of reality, sense of entitlement, and exploitive treatment of others" conspire toward his own demise.[82]
    • In the film To Die For, Nicole Kidman's character wants to appear on television at all costs, even if this involves murdering her husband. A psychiatric assessment of her character noted that she "was seen as a prototypical narcissistic person by the raters: on average, she satisfied 8 of 9 criteria for narcissistic personality disorder... had she been evaluated for personality disorders, she would receive a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder."[83]

    See also


  3. van der Linden, S.; Rosenthal, S.A. (2015). "Measuring Narcissism with a Single Question? An Extension and Replication of the Single-Item Narcissism Scale". Personality and Individual Differences 90: 238–241. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.050.

    1. Hesse, Morten; Schliewe S; Thomsen RR (2005). "Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters". BMC Psychiatry (London: BioMed Central) 5 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-5-45. PMC 1325244. PMID 16336663.

    Further reading

    • Blackburn, Simon, Mirror, Mirror: The Uses and Abuses of Self-Love (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014)
    • Brown, Nina W., Children of the Self-Absorbed: A Grown-up's Guide to Getting over Narcissistic Parents (2008)
    • Brown, Nina W., The Destructive Narcissistic Pattern (1998)
    • Golomb, Elan, Trapped in the Mirror – Adult Children of Narcissists in their Struggle for Self (1995)
    • Hotchkiss, Sandy; Masterson, James F., Why Is It Always About You? : The Seven Deadly Sins of Narcissism (2003)
    • Lavender N. J.; Cavaiola, A. A., The One-Way Relationship Workbook: Step-By-Step Help for Coping with Narcissists, Egotistical Lovers, Toxic Coworkers & Others Who Are Incredibly Self-Absorbed (2011)
    • Lowen, Alexander, Narcissism: Denial of the True Self (1984)
    • Lunbeck, Elizabeth, The Americanization of Narcissism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
    • McFarlin, Dean, Where Egos Dare: The Untold Truth About Narcissistic Leaders – And How to Survive Them (2002)
    • Morrison, Andrew P., Essential Papers on Narcissism (Essential Papers in Psychoanalysis) (1986)
    • Morrison, Andrew P., Shame: The Underside of Narcissism (1997)
    • Payson, Eleanor, The Wizard of Oz and Other Narcissists: Coping with the One-Way Relationship in Work, Love, and Family (2002)
    • Ronningstam, Elsa F., Identifying and Understanding the Narcissistic Personality (2005)
    • Shaw, Daniel, Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation (2013)
    • Thomas David, Narcissism: Behind the Mask (2010)
    • Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W., Keith The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement (2009)
    • Vaknin, Sam; Rangelovska, Lidija, Malignant Self Love: Narcissism Revisited (1999)

    External links

  • Symington, Neville (1993). Narcissism: A New Theory. H. Karnac Ltd. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781855750470.

  • Millon, Theodore (2004), Personality Disorders in Modern Life

  • Freud, Sigmund, On Narcissism: An Introduction, 1914

  • Lowen, Alexander (1997) [1983]. Narcissism: Denial of the True Self. New York, NY: Touchstone. p. 45.

  • Horton, R. S.; Bleau, G.; Drwecki, B. (2006). "Parenting Narcissus: What Are the Links Between Parenting and Narcissism?" (PDF). Journal of Personality 74 (2): 345–376. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00378.x. See p. 347.

  • Thomas, David. Narcissism: Behind the Mask (2012), ISBN 184624935X

  • Readings in Philosophy of Psychology – Google Books

  • Hotchkiss, Sandy & Masterson, James F. Why Is It Always About You?: The Seven Deadly Sins of Narcissism (2003)

  • Millon, Theodore (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV-TM and Beyond. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 393. ISBN 0-471-01186-X.

  • Leonard C. Groopman, Arnold M. Cooper (2006). "Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Personality Disorders – Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Armenian Medical Network. Retrieved 2007-02-14.

  • Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders: A Clinical Handbook Narcissistic personality disorder, page 263

  • Moore & Fine (1990). Psychoanalytic Terms & Concept. The American Psychoanalytic Association: New York.

  • Paris, Bernard J, Personality and Personal Growth, edited by Robert Frager and James Fadiman, 1998

  • Craig Malkin (2015). Rethinking Narcissism: The Bad-and Surprising Good-About Feeling Special. ISBN 978-0062348104.

  •, psychoanalyticus Willy Depecker

  • Morf, Caroline C., Rhodewalt, Frederick (2001). "Unraveling the Paradoxes of Narcissism: A Dynamic Self-Regulatory Processing Model". Psychological Inquiry 12 (4): 177–196. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1204_1.

  • Sedikides, C., Rudich, E.A., Gregg, A.P., Kumashiro, Ml, Rusbult, C. (2004). "Are Normal Narcissists Psychologically Healthy?: self-esteem matters". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 (3): 400–16. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.3.400. PMID 15382988.

  • Campbell, W.K., & Foster, J.D. The Narcissistic Self: Background and extended agency model and ongoing controversies. Sedikides and Spencer. The Self, Psychology Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84169-439-9

  • Auerbach JS (December 1984). "Validation of two scales for narcissistic personality disorder". J Pers Assess 48 (6): 649–53. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4806_13. PMID 6520692.

  • Foster, J.D., & Campbell, W.K., Are there such things as "narcissists" in social psychology? A taxometric analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, in press.

  • Campbell, K.W. & Foster J.D. (2007). The Narcissistic Self: Background, an Extended Agency Model, and Ongoing Controversies. To appear in: C. Sedikides & S. Spencer (Eds.), Frontiers in social psychology: The self. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

  • Campbell, W. K., Rudich, E., Sedikides, C. (2002). "Narcissism, selfesteem, and the positivity of selfviews: Two portraits of selflove". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (3): 358–68. doi:10.1177/0146167202286007.

  • Gabriel, M. T., Critelli, J. W., Ee, J. S. (1994). "Narcissistic illusions in self-evaluations of intelligence and attractiveness". Journal of Personality 62 (1): 143–55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00798.x.

  • Emmons, R.A. (1984). "Factor analysis and construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory". Journal of Personality Assessment 48 (3): 291–300. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4803_11.

  • Campbell, W. K., Bush, C. P., Brunell, A. B., & Shelton, J. (in press). Understanding the social costs of narcissism: The case of tragedy of the commons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

  • Rose, P. & Campbell, W. K. (in press). Greatness feels good: A telic model of narcissism and subjective wellbeing. Advances in Psychology Research. Serge P. Shohov (Ed.) Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers.

  • Campbell, W.K., Reeder G.D., Sedikides, C., Elliot, A.J. (2000). "Narcissism and Comparative Self-Enhancement Strategies". Journal of Research in Personality 34 (3): 329–47. doi:10.1006/jrpe.2000.2282.

  • Sorokowski, P; Sorokowska, A; Oleszkiewicz, A; Frackowiak, T; Huk, A; Pisanski, K. "Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men". Pers Individ Dif 85: 123–7. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.004.

  • Livesley WJ, Jang KL, Jackson DN, Vernon PA (December 1993). "Genetic and environmental contributions to dimensions of personality disorder". Am J Psychiatry 150 (12): 1826–31. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.12.1826. PMID 8238637.

  • Arikan, K. (2005). "A stigmatizating attitude towards psychiatric illnesses is associated with narcissistic personality traits". Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 42 (4): 248–50. PMID 16618057.

  • Buston & Emlen 2003, Buss 1989, Epstein & Guttman 1984, Garrison et al. 1968, Ho 1986, Jaffe & Chacon 1995, Spuhler 1968, Rushton 1989

  • Alvarez, L. (2005). "Narcissism guides mate selection: Humans mate assortatively, as revealed by facial resemblance, following an algorithm of 'self seeking like'". Evolutionary Psychology 2: 177–94. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006.

  • Fenichel 1938.

  • Salman Akhtar, Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London 2009) p. 182

  • Carl P. Malmquist (2006). Homicide: A Psychiatric Perspective. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. pp. 181–182. ISBN 1-58562-204-4.

  • Vaknin, Sam, Malignant Self Love: Narcissism Revisited (1999).

  • Shaw J.A. (1999.) Sexual Aggression, American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 28–9.

  • Gerald Alper, Self Defence in a Narcissistic World (2003) p. 10

  • Patrick Casement, Further Learning from the Patient (1990) p. 132

  • Note: In For Your Own Good, Alice Miller herself credits Katharina Rutschky and her 1977 work Schwarze Pädagogik as the source of inspiration to consider the concept of poisonous pedagogy,[1] which is considered as a translation of Rutschky's original term Schwarze Pädagogik (literally "black pedagogy"). Source: Zornado, Joseph L. (2001). Inventing the Child: Culture, Ideology, and the Story of Childhood. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 0-8153-3524-5. In the Spanish translations of Miller's books, Schwarze Pädagogik is translated literally.

  • James I. Kepner, Body Process (1997) p. 73

  • Masterson, James F. The Emerging Self: A Developmental Self & Object Relations Approach to the Treatment of the Closet Narcissistic Disorder of the Self, 1993

  • Simon Crompton, All about me (London 2007) p. 171

  • Crompton, p. 171

  • Rappoport, Alan, Ph. D.Co-Narcissism: How We Adapt to Narcissistic Parents. The Therapist, 2005.

  • Golec de Zavala, A, et al. "Collective narcissism and its social consequences." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97.6 (2009): 1074–1096. Psyc articles. EBSCO. Web. 26 Mar. 2011.

  • Bizumic, Boris, and John Duckitt. "My Group Is Not Worthy of Me": Narcissism and Ethnocentrism." Political Psychology 29.3 (2008): 437–453. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. EBSCO. Web. 9 Apr. 2011.

  • Lasch, C, The Culture of Narcissism. 1979

  • Brown, Nina W., The Destructive Narcissistic Pattern, 1998

  • Fromm, Erich, The Heart of Man, 1964

  • Banja, John, Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism, 2005

  • Banja, John, (as observed by Eric Rangus) John Banja: Interview with the clinical ethicist

  • Judge, T. A.; LePine, J. A.; Rich, B. L. (2006). "Loving Yourself Abundantly: Relationship of the Narcissistic Personality to Self- and Other Perceptions of Workplace Deviance, Leadership, and Task and Contextual Performance". Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (4): 762–776. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.762.

  • Bushman, B. J.; Baumeister, R. F. (1998). "Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence?". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 (1): 219–229. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.219. PMID 9686460.

  • Penney, L. M.; Spector, P. E. (2002). "Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems?". International Journal of Selection and Assessment 10 (1–2): 126–134. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00199.

  • Wislar, J. S.; Richman, J. A.; Fendrich, M.; Flaherty, J. A. (2002). "Sexual harassment, generalized workplace abuse and drinking outcomes: The role of personality vulnerability". Journal of Drug Issues 32 (4): 1071–1088. doi:10.1177/002204260203200404.

  • A. J. DuBrin, Narcissism in the Workplace (2012) p. 143

  • A. J. DuBrin, Narcissism in the Workplace (2012) p. 143 and p. 181

  • S. Allcorn, Organizational Dynamics and Intervention (2005) p. 105

  • A. J. DuBrin, Narcissism in the Workplace (2012) p. 122

  • Downs, Alan: Beyond The Looking Glass: Overcoming the Seductive Culture of Corporate Narcissism, 1997

  • Hill, Victor (2005) Corporate Narcissism in Accounting Firms Australia, Pengus Books Australia

  • Simmel, Ernst (1944). Psychoanalytic Quarterly XIII (2): 160–85. Missing or empty |title= (help)

  • Bernard Stiegler, Acting Out (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009).

  • Hurlbert, D.F., Apt, C. (1991). "Sexual narcissism and the abusive male". Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 17 (4): 279–92. doi:10.1080/00926239108404352. PMID 1815094.

  • Hurlbert, D.F., Apt, C., Gasar, S., Wilson, N.E., Murphy, Y. (1994). "Sexual narcissism: a validation study". Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 20 (1): 24–34. doi:10.1080/00926239408403414.

  • Ryan, K.M., Weikel, K., Sprechini, G. (2008). "Gender differences in narcissism and courtship violence in dating couples". Sex Roles 58 (11–12): 802–13. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9403-9.

  • Apt, C., Hurlbert, D.F. (1995). "Sexual Narcissism: Addiction or Anachronism?". The Family Journal 3 (2): 103–7. doi:10.1177/1066480795032003.

  • Schoenewolf, G. (2013). Psychoanalytic Centrism: Collected Papers of a Neoclassical Psychoanalyst. Living Center Press.

  • Brunell, A. B.; Gentry, W. A.; Campbell, W.; Hoffman, B. J.; Kuhnert, K. W.; DeMarree, K. G. (2008). "Leader emergence: The case of the narcissistic leader". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (12): 1663–1676. doi:10.1177/0146167208324101.

  • Benjamin, Jessica (2000). "The Oedipal Riddle". In Du Gay, Paul; Evans, Jessica; Redman, Peter. The Identity Reader. London: Sage. pp. 231–247. Quoted in Tyler, Imogen (September 2007). "From 'The Me Decade' to 'The Me Millennium': The Cultural History of Narcissism". International Journal of Cultural Studies 10 (3): 343–363. doi:10.1177/1367877907080148.

  • Lorentzen, Justin (2007). "The culture(s) of narcissism: simultaneity and the psychedelic sixties". In Gaitanidis, Anastasios; Curk, Polona. Narcissism – A Critical Reader. London: Karnac Books. p. 127. ISBN 9781855754539.

  • An exemplar of this cultural tendency was the emergence in 2007 of a fake paparazzi service in the United States whose clients are followed by would-be photographers to give the recipient an air of celebrity. Twenge, Jean M. (2011). Campbell, W. Keith; Miller, Joshua D., eds. The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Findings, and Treatments. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 202. ISBN 9781118029268.

  • Marshall, David P. (November 2004). "Fame's Perpetual Motion". M/C Journal 7 (5). Retrieved 7 February 2013.

  • Lasch, Christopher (1979). The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. Warner Books. ISBN 9780446321044.; Lorentzen, Justin (2007). "The culture(s) of narcissism: simultaneity and the psychedelic sixties". In Gaitanidis, Anastasios; Curk, Polona. Narcissism – A Critical Reader. London: Karnac Books. p. 129. ISBN 9781855754539.; Nelson, Kristina (2004). Narcissism in High Fidelity. Lincoln: iUniverse. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9780595318049.

  • DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond Jr., Richard S.; Campbell, W. Keith; Twenge, Jean M. (August 2011). "Tuning in to psychological change: Linguistic markers of psychological traits and emotions over time in popular U.S. song lyrics". Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 5 (3): 200–207. doi:10.1037/a0023195.

  • Twenge, Jean M. (2011). Campbell, W. Keith; Miller, Joshua D., eds. The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Findings, and Treatments. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 203. ISBN 9781118029268.

  • Twenge, Jean M. (2011). Campbell, W. Keith; Miller, Joshua D., eds. The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Findings, and Treatments. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 202. ISBN 9781118029268.

  • Voronov, M; Singer, J.A. (2002). "The Myth of Individualism-Collectivism: A Critical Review". The Journal of Social Psychology 142 (4): 461–480. doi:10.1080/00224540209603912. PMID 12153123. Quoted in Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P.J.; Krauss, Stephen W.; Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl (Summer 2004). "Social Science as Dialogue: Narcissism, Individualist and Collectivist Values, and Religious Interest in Iran and the United States". Current Psychology 32 (2): 121.

  • Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P.J.; Krauss, Stephen W.; Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl (Summer 2004). "Social Science as Dialogue: Narcissism, Individualist and Collectivist Values, and Religious Interest in Iran and the United States". Current Psychology 32 (2): 121.


    1.  begin quote from:

      Narcissistic personality disorder


      Narcissistic personality disorder

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      This article is about the medical condition. For more information on clinical research and types of narcissism, see Narcissism.
      Narcissistic personality disorder
      Narcissus-Caravaggio (1594-96) edited.jpg
      Narcissus by Caravaggio, gazing at his own reflection.
      Classification and external resources
      Specialty Psychiatry
      ICD-10 F60.8
      ICD-9-CM 301.81
      MedlinePlus 000934
      MeSH D010554
      Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder, characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others.[1] People with the disorder often come across as arrogant, callous, and envious, and tend to be exploitative in their interpersonal relationships. They can be excessively preoccupied with personal adequacy, power, prestige and vanity. As a personality disorder, those with NPD generally have poor insight into their condition and may not acknowledge that their behavior causes problems for others or for themselves.
      It is estimated that NPD affects up to five percent of the population.[1] Males are affected more often than females[citation needed]. First formulated in 1968, NPD was historically called megalomania, and is a form of severe egocentrism.[2]
      It is classified as a cluster B personality disorder by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[3]


      Signs and symptoms

      People with narcissistic personality disorder are characterized by their persistent grandiosity, excessive need for admiration, and a disdain and lack of empathy for others.[4][5] These individuals often display arrogance, a sense of superiority, and power-seeking behaviors.[6] Narcissistic personality disorder is different from having a strong sense of self-confidence. This is because people with NPD typically value themselves over others to the extent that they disregard the feelings and wishes of others and expect to be treated as superior regardless of their actual status or achievements.[4][7] In addition, people with NPD may exhibit fragile egos, an inability to tolerate criticism, and a tendency to belittle others in an attempt to validate their own superiority.[7]
      According to the DSM-5, individuals with NPD have most or all of the following symptoms, typically without commensurate qualities or accomplishments:[4][7]
      • Grandiosity with expectations of superior treatment from others
      • Fixated on fantasies of power, success, intelligence, attractiveness, etc.
      • Self-perception of being unique, superior and associated with high-status people and institutions
      • Needing constant admiration from others
      • Sense of entitlement to special treatment and to obedience from others
      • Exploitative of others to achieve personal gain
      • Unwilling to empathize with others' feelings, wishes, or needs
      • Intensely jealous of others and the belief that others are equally jealous of them
      • Pompous and arrogant demeanor
      NPD usually develops by adolescence or early adulthood.[4] It is not uncommon for children and teens to display some traits similar to NPD, but these are typically transient without meeting full criteria for the diagnosis.[7] True NPD symptoms are pervasive, apparent in various situations, and rigid, remaining consistent over time. The symptoms must be severe enough that they significantly impair the individual's ability to develop meaningful relationships with others. Symptoms also generally impair an individual's ability to function at work, school, or in other important settings. According to the DSM-5, these traits must differ substantially from cultural norms in order to qualify as symptoms of NPD.[4]

      Associated features

      People with NPD tend to exaggerate their skills and accomplishments as well as their level of intimacy with people they consider to be high-status. Their sense of superiority may cause them to monopolize conversations[7] and to become impatient or disdainful when others talk about themselves.[4] In the course of conversation, they may purposefully or unknowingly disparage or devalue the other person by overemphasizing their own success. When they are aware that their statements have hurt someone else, they tend to react with contempt and to view it as a sign of weakness.[4] When their own ego is wounded by a real or perceived criticism, their anger can be disproportionate to situation,[7] but typically, their actions and responses are deliberate and calculated.[4] Despite occasional flare-ups of insecurity, their self-image is primarily stable (i.e., overinflated).[4]
      To the extent that people are pathologically narcissistic, they can be controlling, blaming, self-absorbed, intolerant of others’ views, unaware of others' needs and of the effects of their behavior on others, and insistent that others see them as they wish to be seen.[4] Narcissistic individuals use various strategies to protect the self at the expense of others. They tend to devalue, derogate, insult, blame others and they often respond to threatening feedback with anger and hostility.[8] Since the fragile ego of individuals with NPD is hypersensitive to perceived criticism or defeat, they are prone to feelings of shame, humiliation and worthlessness over minor or even imagined incidents.[7] They usually mask these feelings from others with feigned humility, isolating socially or they may react with outbursts of rage, defiance, or by seeking revenge.[4][5] The merging of the "inflated self-concept" and the "actual self" is seen in the inherent grandiosity of narcissistic personality disorder. Also inherent in this process are the defense mechanisms of denial, idealization and devaluation.[9]
      According to the DSM-5, "Many highly successful individuals display personality traits that might be considered narcissistic. Only when these traits are inflexible, maladaptive, and persisting and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress do they constitute narcissistic personality disorder."[4] Although overconfidence tends to make individuals with NPD ambitious, it does not necessarily lead to success and high achievement professionally. These individuals may be unwilling to compete or may refuse to take any risks in order to avoid appearing like a failure.[4][5] In addition, their inability to tolerate setbacks, disagreements or criticism, along with lack of empathy, make it difficult for such individuals to work cooperatively with others or to maintain long-term professional relationships with superiors and colleagues.[10]


      While the DSM-5 regards narcissistic personality disorder as a homogeneous syndrome, there is evidence for wide variations in its expression and psychopathology among people who fall under the diagnosis.[1] Two major presentations of narcissism are typically identified, a "overt" or "grandiose" subtype, characterized by grandiosity, arrogance and boldness, and a "covert" or "vulnerable" subtype characterized by defensiveness and hypersensitivity.[1] Those with "narcissistic grandiosity" express behavior "through interpersonally exploitative acts, lack of empathy, intense envy, aggression, and exhibitionism."[11] Psychiatrist Glen Gabbard described the subtype, which he referred to as the "oblivious" subtype as being grandiose, arrogant, and thick skinned. The subtype of "narcissistic vulnerability" entails (on a conscious level) "helplessness, emptiness, low self-esteem, and shame, which can be expressed in the behavior as being socially avoidant in situations where their self-presentation is not possible so they withdraw, or the approval they need/expect is not being met."[11] Gabbard described this subtype, which he referred to as the "hypervigilant" subtype as being easily hurt, oversensitive, and ashamed. In addition, a "high-functioning" presentation, where there is less impairment in the areas of life where those with a more severe expression of the disorder typically have difficulties in, is suggested.[1]

      Causes and mechanisms

      The cause of this disorder is unknown.[7][12] Experts tend to apply a biopsychosocial model of causation,[13] meaning that a combination of environmental, social, genetic and neurobiological factors likely play a role.[12][13]


      There is evidence that narcissistic personality disorder is heritable, and individuals are much more likely to develop NPD if they have a family history of the disorder.[13][14] Studies on the occurrence of personality disorders in twins determined that there is a moderate to high heritability for narcissistic personality disorder.[14][15] However the specific genes and gene interactions that contribute to its etiology, and how they may influence the developmental and physiological processes underlying this condition, have yet to be determined.


      Environmental and social factors are also thought to have a significant influence on the onset of NPD.[13] In some people, pathological narcissism may develop from an impaired attachment to their primary caregivers, usually their parents.[16] This can result in the child's perception of himself/herself as unimportant and unconnected to others. The child typically comes to believe they have some personality defect that makes them unvalued and unwanted.[17] Overindulgent, permissive parenting as well as insensitive, over-controlling parenting, are believed to be contributing factors.[7][12]
      According to Groopman and Cooper (2006), the following factors have been identified by various researchers as possible factors that promote the development of NPD:[18]
      • An oversensitive temperament (personality traits) at birth.
      • Excessive admiration that is never balanced with realistic feedback.
      • Excessive praise for good behaviors or excessive criticism for bad behaviors in childhood.
      • Overindulgence and overvaluation by parents, other family members, or peers.
      • Being praised for perceived exceptional looks or abilities by adults.
      • Severe emotional abuse in childhood.
      • Unpredictable or unreliable caregiving from parents.
      • Learning manipulative behaviors from parents or peers.
      • Valued by parents as a means to regulate their own self-esteem.
      Cultural elements are believed to influence the prevalence of NPD as well since NPD traits have been found to be more common in modern societies than in traditional ones.[13]


      There is little research into the neurological underpinnings of narcissistic personality disorder. Nevertheless, recent research has identified a structural abnormality in the brains of those with narcissistic personality disorder, specifically noting less volume of gray matter in the left anterior insula.[19][20] Another study has associated the condition with reduced gray matter in the prefrontal cortex.[21] The brain regions identified in these studies are associated with empathy, compassion, emotional regulation, and cognitive functioning. These findings suggest that narcissistic personality disorder is related to a compromised capacity for emotional empathy and emotional regulation.[22]



      The formulation of narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-IV was criticised for failing to describe the range and complexity of the disorder. Critics say it focuses overly on "the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns—at the expense of ... internal complexity and individual suffering," which reduces its clinical utility.[23]
      The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group originally proposed the elimination of NPD as a distinct disorder in DSM-5 as part of a major revamping of the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders,[24][25] replacing a categorical with a dimensional approach based on the severity of dysfunctional personality trait domains.
      Some clinicians objected to this, characterizing the new diagnostic system as an "unwieldy conglomeration of disparate models that cannot happily coexist" and may have limited usefulness in clinical practice.[26]
      In July 2011, the Work Group came back with a major revision to their original proposal. In this revision, NPD was reinstated with dramatic changes to its definition.[27] The general move towards a dimensional (personality trait-based) view of the Personality Disorders has been maintained despite the reintroduction of NPD.


      The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists narcissistic personality disorder under (F60.8) Other specific personality disorders.[28]
      It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.


      Theodore Millon identified five subtypes of narcissism.[29][30] However, there are few pure variants of any subtype,[30] and the subtypes are not recognized in the DSM or ICD.
      Subtype Description Personality Traits
      Unprincipled narcissist Including antisocial features. Deficient conscience; unscrupulous, amoral, disloyal, fraudulent, deceptive, arrogant, exploitive; a con artist and charlatan; dominating, contemptuous, vindictive.
      Amorous narcissist Including histrionic features. Sexually seductive, enticing, beguiling, tantalizing; glib and clever; disinclines real intimacy; indulges hedonistic desires; bewitches and inveigles others; pathological lying and swindling.
      Compensatory narcissist Including negativistic and avoidant features Seeks to counteract or cancel out deep feelings of inferiority and lack of self-esteem; offsets deficits by creating illusions of being superior, exceptional, admirable, noteworthy; self-worth results from self-enhancement.
      Elitist narcissist Variant of “pure” pattern. Feels privileged and empowered by virtue of special childhood status and pseudo achievements; entitled façade bears little relation to reality; seeks favored and good life; is upwardly mobile; cultivates special status and advantages by association.
      Malignant narcissist Including antisocial, sadistic and paranoid features. Fearless, guiltless, remorseless, calculating, ruthless, inhumane, callous, brutal, rancorous, aggressive, biting, merciless, vicious, cruel, spiteful; hateful and jealous; anticipates betrayal and seeks punishment; desires revenge; Has been isolated, and is often suicidal, and is homicidal.
      Will Titshaw also identified three sub-types of narcissistic personality disorder which are not officially recognized in any editions of the DSM or the ICD.[citation needed]
      Subtype Description Description
      Pure Narcissist Mainly just NPD characteristics. Someone who has narcissistic features described in the DSM and ICD and lacks features from other personality disorders.
      Attention Narcissist Including histrionic (HPD) features. They display the traditional NPD characteristics described in the ICD & DSM along with histrionic features due to the fact that they think they're superior and therefore they should have everyone's attention, and when they don't have everyone's attention they go out of their way to capture the attention of as many people as possible.
      Beyond The Rules Narcissist Including antisocial (ASPD) features. This type of narcissist thinks that because they're so superior to everyone they don't have to follow the rules like most people and therefore because of this reason shows behavior included in the ICD for dissocial personality disorder and behavior included in the DSM for antisocial personality disorder.


      NPD has a high rate of comorbidity with other mental disorders.[13] Individuals with NPD are prone to bouts of depression, often meeting criteria for co-occurring depressive disorders.[12] In addition, NPD is associated with bipolar disorder, anorexia, and substance use disorders,[5] especially cocaine.[4] As far as other personality disorders, NPD may be associated with histrionic, borderline, antisocial, and paranoid personality disorders.[4]


      Narcissistic personality disorder is rarely the primary reason for people afflicted with the disorder for seeking mental health treatment. When people with NPD enter treatment, it's typically prompted by life difficulties or to seek relief from another disorder, such as major depressive disorder, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, or eating disorders,[5] or at the insistence of relatives and friends.[citation needed] This is partly because individuals with NPD generally have poor insight and fail to recognize their perception and behavior as inappropriate and problematic due to their grandiose self image.[1]
      Treatment for NPD is centered around psychotherapy.[7] In the 1960s, Heinz Kohut and Otto Kernberg challenged the conventional wisdom of the time by outlining clinical strategies for using psychoanalytic psychotherapy with clients with NPD that they claimed were effective in treating the disorder. Contemporary treatment modalities commonly involve transference-focused, metacognitive, and schema-focused therapies. Some improvement might be observed through the treatment of symptoms related to comorbid disorders with psychopharmaceuticals, but as of 2016. According to Elsa Ronningstam, psychologist at Harvard Medical School, "Alliance building and engaging the patient’s sense of agency and reflective ability are essential for change in pathological narcissism."[5]
      Pattern change strategies, done over a long period of time, are used to increase the ability of those with NPD to become more empathetic in everyday relationships. To help modify their sense of entitlement and self-centeredness schema, the strategy is to help them identify how to utilize their unique talents and to help others for reasons other than their own personal gain. This is not so much to change their self-perception of their "entitlement" feeling but more to help them empathize with others. Another type of treatment would be temperament change.[31] Psychoanalytic psychotherapy may be effective in treating NPD, but therapists must recognize the patient’s traits and use caution in tearing down narcissistic defenses too quickly.[citation needed] Anger, rage, impulsivity and impatience can be worked on with skill training. Therapy may not be effective because patients may receive feedback poorly and defensively. Anxiety disorders and somatoma dysfunctions are prevalent but the most common would be depression.[citation needed]
      Group treatment has its benefits as the effectiveness of receiving peer feedback rather than the clinician’s may be more accepted, but group therapy can also contradict itself as the patient may show "demandingness, egocentrism, social isolation and withdrawal, and socially deviant behavior." Researchers originally thought group therapy among patients with would fail because it was believed that group therapy required empathy that NPD patients lack. However, studies show group therapy does hold value for patients with NPD because it lets them explore boundaries, develop trust, increase self-awareness, and accept feedback. Relationship therapy stresses the importance of learning and applying four basic interpersonal skills: "...effective expression, empathy, discussion and problem solving/conflict resolution."[citation needed] Marital/relationship therapy is most beneficial when both partners participate.[31]
      No medications are indicated for treating NPD, but may be used to treat co-occurring mental conditions, or symptoms that may be associated with it such as depression, anxiety and impulsiveness if present.[7]


      The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions in the treatment of narcissistic personality disorder have yet to be systematically and empirically investigated. Clinical practice guidelines for the disorder have not yet been created, and current treatment recommendations are largely based on theoretical psychodynamic models of NPD and the experiences of clinicians with afflicted individuals in clinical settings.[1]
      The presence of NPD in patients undergoing psychotherapy for the treatment for other mental disorders is associated with slower treatment progress and higher dropout rates.[1]


      Lifetime prevalence is estimated at 1% in the general population and 2% to 16% in clinical populations.[18][32]
      In 2009, Twenge and Campbell conducted studies suggesting that the incidence of NPD had more than doubled in the US in the prior 10 years, and that 1 in 16 of the population have experienced NPD.[33]
      "A nationwide study in the United States found that 7.7 percent of men and 4.8 percent of women could be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (Stinson et al., 2008). These data also suggest that narcissistic personality disorder is more prevalent among younger adults, possibly supporting the impression that narcissistic personality disorder is on the rise as a result of social and economic conditions that support more extreme versions of self-focused individualism (Bender, 2012)."[34]

      In fiction

      An article on the Victorian Web argues cogently that Rosamond Vincy, in George Eliot’s Middlemarch (1871–72), is a full-blown Narcissist as defined by the DSM.[35]
      In the film To Die For, Nicole Kidman’s character wants to appear on television at all costs, even if this involves murdering her husband. A psychiatric assessment of her character noted that she "was seen as a prototypical narcissistic person by the raters: on average, she satisfied 8 of 9 criteria for narcissistic personality disorder... had she been evaluated for personality disorders, she would receive a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder."[36]
      Other examples in popular fiction include television characters Adam Demamp[37] (portrayed by Adam DeVine in Workaholics) and Dennis Reynolds (portrayed by Glenn Howerton in It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia).


      The use of the term "narcissism" to describe excessive vanity and self-centeredness predates by many years the modern medical classification of narcissistic personality disorder. The condition was named after Narcissus, a mythological Greek youth who became infatuated with his own reflection in a lake. He did not realize at first that it was his own reflection, but when he did, he died out of grief for having fallen in love with someone that did not exist outside of himself.
      The term "narcissistic personality structure" was introduced by Kernberg in 1967[38] and "narcissistic personality disorder" first proposed by Heinz Kohut in 1968.[39]


      A Norwegian study concluded that narcissism should be conceived as personality dimensions pertinent to the whole range of PDs rather than as a distinct diagnostic category.[40] Alarcón and Sarabia in examining past literature on the disorder concluded that narcissistic personality disorder "shows nosological inconsistency and that its consideration as a trait domain with needed further research would be strongly beneficial to the field".[41]

      See also

      Case study


    2. Caligor, E; Levy, KN; Yeomans, FE (May 2015). "Narcissistic personality disorder: diagnostic and clinical challenges.". The American journal of psychiatry 172 (5): 415–22. PMID 25930131.

    1. Alarcón RD, Sarabia S (2012). "Debates on the narcissism conundrum: trait, domain, dimension, type, or disorder?". J Nerv Ment Dis (200): 16–25.

    Further reading


    • Masterson, James F (1 June 1981). The Narcissistic and Borderline Disorders: An Integrated Developmental Approach (First ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0876302927.

    General public

    • Brown, Nina W (1 April 2008). Children of the Self-Absorbed (Second ed.). Oakland: New Harbinger Publications. ISBN 978-0743214285.
    • Behary, Wendy (1 July 2013). Disarming the Narcissist (Second ed.). Oakland: New Harbinger Publications. ISBN 978-1608827602.
    • Hotchkiss, Sandy (7 August 2003). Why Is It Always About You? (Reprint ed.). Florence: Free Press. ISBN 978-1572245617.
    • Jean M. Twenge, Ph.D. and W. Keith Campbell, Ph.D., The Narcissism Epidemic, New York, Free Press 2009 ISBN 978-1-4165-7625-9

    External links

  • R. Kayne, ed. L.S. Wynn (4 March 2013). "What is Megalomania?". Wise Geek. Conjecture. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2014.

  • Narcissistic personality disorder – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association (2000)

  • American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 669–672, ISBN 0890425558

  • Ronningstam, Elsa (2016), "New Insights Into Narcissistic Personality Disorder", Psychiatric Times 33 (2): 11

  • Ronningstam E (2011). "Narcissistic personality disorder: a clinical perspective". J Psychiatr Pract 17 (2): 89–99. doi:10.1097/01.pra.0000396060.67150.40. PMID 21430487.

  • Mayo Clinic Staff (18 Nov 2014), "Narcissistic personality disorder: Symptoms", Mayo Clinic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research), retrieved 29 Apr 2016

  • Ronningstam, Elsa F, Identifying and understanding the narcissistic personality, Oxfard University Press Inc

  • Siegel JP (2006). "Dyadic splitting in partner relational disorders". J Fam Psychol 20 (3): 418–22. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.20.3.418. PMID 16937998.

  • Golomb, Elan (1992), Trapped in the Mirror, New York: Morrow, p. 22

  • Pincus AL, Ansell EB, Pimentel CA, Cain NM, Wright AG, Levy KN; Ansell; Pimentel; Cain; Wright; Levy (2009). "Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory". Psychol Assess 21 (3): 365–79. doi:10.1037/a0016530. PMID 19719348.

  • Berger, FK (31 Oct 2014), "Medical Encyclopedia: Narcissistic personality disorder", MedlinePlus (U.S. National Library of Medicine)

  • Paris, Joel (2014), "Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder", Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 5 (2): 220, doi:10.1037/a0028580

  • Torgersen, S; Lygren, S; Oien, PA; Skre, I; Onstad, S; Edvardsen, J; Tambs, K; Kringlen, E (December 2000). "A twin study of personality disorders.". Comprehensive psychiatry 41 (6): 416–25. PMID 11086146.

  • Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted (1 March 2010). "The genetic epidemiology of personality disorders". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 12 (1): 103–114. ISSN 1294-8322. PMID 20373672.

  • Ken Magid (1987). High risk children without a conscience. Bantam. p. 67. ISBN 0-553-05290-X. Retrieved 17 November 2012.

  • Stephen M. Johnson (1 May 1987). Humanizing the narcissistic style. W.W. Norton. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-393-70037-4. Retrieved 29 October 2013.

  • Groopman, Leonard C. M.D.; Cooper, Arnold M. M.D. (2006). "Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Personality Disorders – Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Armenian Medical Network. Retrieved 2007-02-14.

  • Schulze L, Dziobek I, Vater A, Heekeren HR, Bajbouj M, Renneberg B, Heuser I, Roepke S; Dziobek; Vater; Heekeren; Bajbouj; Renneberg; Heuser; Roepke (2013). "Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder". J Psychiatr Res 47 (10): 1363–9. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.017. PMID 23777939.

  • "Narcissists’ Lack of Empathy Tied to Less Gray Matter". PsychCentral. Retrieved 2014-04-24.

  • Nenadic, Igor; Güllmar, Daniel; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Steinke, Johanna; Gader, Christian (February 2015). "Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: A VBM and DTI pilot study". Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging (Elsevier Ireland) 231 (2): 184–186. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.11.001. PMID 25492857.

  • Ronningstam, Elsa (19 January 2016). "Pathological Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Recent Research and Clinical Implications". Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports (Springer International Publishing) 3 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0060-y.

  • Ronningstam E (2010). "Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review". Curr Psychiatry Rep 12 (1): 68–75. doi:10.1007/s11920-009-0084-z. PMID 20425313.

  • "DSM-5: Proposed Revisions: Personality and Personality Disorders". American Psychiatric Association. 2010-02-13.

  • Holden C (2010). "Psychiatry. APA seeks to overhaul personality disorder diagnoses". Science 327 (5971): 1314. doi:10.1126/science.327.5971.1314. PMID 20223959.

  • Shedler J, Beck A, Fonagy P, Gabbard GO, Gunderson J, Kernberg O, Michels R, Westen D; Beck; Fonagy; Gabbard; Gunderson; Kernberg; Michels; Westen (September 2010). "Personality Disorders in DSM-5". American Journal of Psychiatry 167 (9): 1026–1028. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050746. PMID 20826853. Retrieved 30 November 2010.


  • Narcissistic personality disorder – International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)

  • Millon, Theodore (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV-TM and Beyond. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 393. ISBN 0-471-01186-X.

  • "Millon, Theodore, Personality Subtypes". Retrieved 2013-12-10.

  • Sperry, Lynn (1999), Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Cognitive Behavior Therapy of DSM-IV Personality Disorders: Highly Effective Interventions for the Most Common Personality Disorders, Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, pp. 131–138

  • Megalomaniacs abound in politics/medicine/finance Business Day 2011/01/07

  • Twenge, Jean M. & Campbell, W. Keith The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement (2009)

  • "McGraw-Hill Connect". Retrieved 2014-04-25.

  • G. Peter Winnington, The Narcissism of Rosamond Vincy. url =

  • Hesse M, Schliewe S, Thomsen RR; Schliewe; Thomsen (2005). "Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters". BMC Psychiatry (London: BioMed Central) 5: 45. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-5-45. PMC 1325244. PMID 16336663.

  • "‘Workaholics’ Star Recounts Dangerous Situations, Weird Gestures".

  • Kernberg O, Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism, 1967

  • Kohut H The Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders: Outline of a Systematic Approach, 1968

  • Karterud, Sigmund (September 2011). "Validity aspects of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder construct". Comprehensive psychiatry 52 (5): 517–526.



    No comments: