Aug 3, 2017 - While open innovation suggests active collaboration between different organisations and the sharing of intellectual property, co-creation relates more specifically to the relationship between an organisation and a defined group of its stakeholders, usually its customers.
Feb 15, 2017 - Effective Co-Creation - A Guide to Open Innovation Programs ... There are two main drivers you commonly hear when you ask why a company is looking to do open innovation: ... And lawyers may welcome the opportunity to keep track of IP exchange within a central collaboration software platform. It's hard ...
May 25, 2016 - Open innovation thinking, where companies collaborate with suppliers, distributors, and customers to co-create unique value, is fast replacing traditional thinking that viewed innovation as a proprietary activity and marketing as a static, one-way broadcast.
crowdsourcingweek.com › CROWDSOURCING › Open Innovation
Jan 7, 2014 - Open Innovation or Co-creation and Coexistence of Business Models ... Despite the social networks allow the development of collaboration which is at the heart of today's business processes, most organizations still does not accept this “truth.
” Collaborate is not a simple consequence of a statement. It takes ...
Feb 19, 2014 - Co-Innovation: concept introduced by Lee, Olson and Trimi in the past years. Core to the approach is collective intelligence which is now possible to formally organize in 3 pillars: 1) converges of ideas; 2) collaborative arrangement and 3) co-creation of experiences. Beyond the pillars, innovation's incipit is ...
Co-creation, the process where companies and consumers work together to create better ideas, products and services has been in practice for many years. ... How Co-Creation and Open Collaboration Can Drive Insurance Innovation. co-
collaboration blog banner.png. Co-creation, the process where companies and ...
The released source code is then open to modification as per the requirement of the users. Examples like, Mozilla Firefox, Apache and Linux are all based on collaborating. The Art of Co-creation. The traditional company-centric view says: (
1) the consumer is outside the domain of the value chain; (2) the enterprise controls ...
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Co-created value arises in the form of personalized, unique experiences for the customer (value-in-use) and ongoing revenue, learning and enhanced market performance drivers for the firm (loyalty, relationships, customer word of mouth). Value is co-created with customers if and when a customer is able to personalize his or her experience using a firm's product-service proposition – in the lifetime of its use – to a level that is best suited to get his or her job(s) or tasks done and which allows the firm to derive greater value from its product-service investment in the form of new knowledge, higher revenues/profitability and/or superior brand value/loyalty.
Scholars C. K. Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy popularized the concept in their 2000 Harvard Business Review article, "Co-Opting Customer Competence". They developed their arguments further in their book, published by the Harvard Business School Press, The Future of Competition, where they offered examples including Napster and Netflix showing that customers would no longer be satisfied with making yes or no decisions on what a company offers.
Within the study of Prahalad and Ramaswamy, they defined co-creation as “The joint creation of value by the company and the customer; allowing the customer to co-construct the service experience to suit their context” (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004, p. 8).
The process of Co-creation
The process of co-creation essentially involves 2 core steps:
- Contribution: Submission of contributions by the public to the firm
- Selection: Selection of the most promising and appealing contributions/submissions
Depending on the degree of control exercised by the firm/public over the contribution and selection activities, co-creation may be broadly classified into 4 categories:
- Tinkering: Public exercises control over the contribution activity while the firm exercises control over the selection activity
- Submitting: Firm exercises complete control over both the activities
- Co-designing: Firm exercises control over the contribution activity while the public exercises control over the selection activity
- Collaborating: Public exercises complete control over both the activities
Tinkering is a customer co-creation model that involves procurement of contributions from the public by the firm, a comprehensive and scrupulous examination of the contributions, selection of the most promising and enterprising contributions by the firm and finally implementation of the contributions.For example, Little Big Planet, a puzzle platform video game by Sony Interactive Entertainment allows the gamers to create their own levels in the game.The created levels can then be shared with other gamers or submitted to Sony. Owing to this "Create and Share" feature, this game has the tagline 'Play, Create, Share'.The most promising contributions are incorporated into the final game and the contributors are rewarded.
In the case of submitting, the firm exercises control over the contribution activity by placing constraints on the basic design, contribution size etc. and also the selection activity by selecting the winning contributions.
Co-designing involves placement of constraints by the firm on the contribution activity and selection of the winning contributions by the contributors themselves. For example, Local Motors employs the co-designing model of customer co-creation to develop its vehicles.In 2010, Local Motors developed a car named Rally Fighter in a record 18 months, which is about 5 times faster than what a conventional car manufacturing process takes.By empowering a community of over 2000 designers to submit their designs while still placing some constraints on the basic design, color schemes etc., Local Motors effectively utilized the co-designing model of customer co-creation.The winning designing (By Sangho Kim) was chosen as the winning design by the designer community through voting.
An interesting bit of trivia about Local Motors is that it doesn't even have a design team. All the designing is done by the public itself.
Threadless, one of the leading T-shirt manufacturing brands in America also employs co-designing.
Also known as open sourcing, collaborating involves releasing the source code of the product and making it accessible to the general public.The released source code is then open to modification as per the requirement of the users. Examples like, Mozilla Firefox, Apache and Linux are all based on collaborating.
The Art of Co-creation
The traditional company-centric view says: (1) the consumer is outside the domain of the value chain; (2) the enterprise controls where, when, and how value is added in the value chain; (3) value is created in a series of activities controlled by the enterprise before the point of purchase; (4) there is a single point of exchange where value is extracted from the customer for the enterprise. The consumer-centric view says: (1) the consumer is integral part of the system for value creation; (2)the consumer can influence where, when, and how value is generated; (3) the consumer need not respect industry boundaries in the search for value; (4) the consumer can compete with companies for value extraction; (5) there are multiple points of exchange where the consumer and the company can co-create value. In the customer-centric mass production and marketing of automobiles, for example, suppliers provide raw materials, components, subcomponents, and systems to manufacturers, who create value by assembling these inputs into vehicles. Consumers actively decide what vehicle to buy, but companies decide what their choices will be. Cars are sold by dealers acting as intermediaries for the automakers. For companies reliant on this scenario, value creation is defined solely by extracting profit from end consumers. The Saturn Corporation, billing itself as “a different kind of car company,” has spurned the industry’s traditional ways. In 1985, when the General Motors Corporation launched Saturn, it didn’t just start a new car company, it created a “community.” Saturn works with its customers in the design, manufacturing, and sales processes, and it engages Saturn owners to help continuously innovate and improve its cars. Consumers think about the place of a car in their life — how it fits their budget, their desire for comfort, their need for peace of mind, their aesthetics. Companies think about their competitive strategy and their operations — engineering, differentiation, logistics, pricing, and, above all, revenue and profit. Although these views of value do clash, they’re not irreconcilable. Saturn is a company trying to merge these two ways of looking at value. In the pages that follow, we present a framework — a new value creation paradigm — to suggest how companies can better understand the consumer’s view of value and productively work with them to co-create more satisfying value for both sides.
The four building blocks of interactionPrahalad and Ramaswamy suggested that in order to apply co-creation, the following fundamental requirements should be prepared in advance.
|Dialogue||Interaction between customer||Two-way connection instead of one-way selling strategy|
|Access||Allow customer to access the data||Create value with customer; beyond traditional value chain process|
|Risk-benefit||To monitor risk and gaps between customer and firm||Share the risk of product development with guest through communication (In later work of Ramaswamy, this is replaced by "reflexivity")|
|Transparency||Information among business is accessible||Information barriers should be eliminated to certain degree in order to gain trust from guest|
From co-productionIn their review of the literature on "customer participation in production", Neeli Bendapudi and Robert P. Leone found that the first academic work dates back to 1979.
From 1990 onwards, new themes are emerging: John Czepiel suggests that customer's participation may lead to greater customer's satisfaction. Scott Kelley, James Donnelly and Steven J. Skinner are dealing with productivity but suggest other ways to look at customer participation: quality, employee's performance, and emotional responses.
Although not reviewed by Bendapuli and Leone, the groundbreaking article by R. Normann and R. Ramirez suggests that successful companies do not focus on themselves or even on the industry but on the value-creating system.
Michel, Vargo and Lusch recognize the influence of Normann on their own work and acknowledge similarity between the concepts of co-production and co-creation: "his customer co-production mirrors the similar concept found in FP6". The authors suggest that Normann enriched the S-D Logic particularly through his idea of "density" of offerings.
In a letter sent to the editor of the Harvard Business Review in reaction to an article by Pine, Peppers and Roger ("Do you want to keep your customers forever"), Michael Schrage argues that not all customers are alike in their capacity to bring some kind of knowledge to the firm.
Wikström sees the role of consumers changing.
Firat, Fuat, Dholakia, and Venkatesh introduced the concept of customerization (which is a buyer-centric evolution of the mass-customization process) and stated that it enables consumers to serve as "the co-producer of the product and service offering". However, Bendapudi and Leone (2003) concluded in an empirical paper that "the assumption of greater customization under co-production may hold only when the customer has the expertise to craft a good or service to his or her liking".
As noted by Zwass in his 2010 taxonomy and review article on co-creation, the term "co-creation" was initially framed as a strategy by Dr. Ajit Kambil and his coauthors in two articles in 1996 and 1999. In "Reinventing Value Propositions" (1996), Kambil, Ginsberg and Bloch illustrate how co-creation can be utilized as a strategy to transform value propositions working with customers or complementary resources. In "Co-creation: A new source of value" (1999), Kambil, Friesen and Sundaram build out the concept of co-creation being a key source of value enabled by the Internet and provide a balanced view of risks companies must consider in utilizing this strategy.
At the turn of the century, Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000) popularized co-creation building on the prior work.
In 2004, Prahalad and Ramaswamy kept working on their ideas published four years earlier. At the same time, Vargo and Lush (2004) published on the service-dominant logic of marketing. The process of value creation is dealt with in FP6. Opposing the goods-dominant logic and the service-dominant logic, the authors state: "the customer is always a coproducer". FP6 will be later (Vargo and Lush, 2006) altered in "the customer is always a co-creator".
Prahalad commented in an issue of the Journal of Marketing on Vargo and Lusch's FP6 and found that the authors did not go far enough.
In the same book, Kalaignanam and Varadarajan (2006) also follow Prahalad's comments and elaborate on the IT implications on coproduction. As the authors put it "developments in information technology [...] enable customers to create value by collaborating with the firm". The main contribution of the authors in this article is a conceptual model of the intensity of customer participation as function of product characteristics, market and customer characteristics, firm characteristics. In their conclusions and directions for future research the authors deal with three promising topics. First they propose to study supply-side issues and how increasing communication, participation from the customers and the emergence of communities enable customers to interact between them, sometimes leading to new creations. Second they see the "locus of innovation" as of interest and in particular how the shift of firm-centric networks to user-centric networks can lead to increased innovation capabilities. Third they wonder whether demand-side issues may not result in negative consequences on satisfaction. The third issue is already mentioned by Bendapuli and Leone: "A customer who believes he or she has the expertise and chooses to co-produce may be more likely to make self-attributions for success and failure than a customer who lacks the expertise. A customer who lacks the expertise but feels forced to co-produce [...] may make more negative attributions about co-production".
Early applicationsIn the early 2000s, consultants and companies deployed co-creation as a tool for engaging customers in product design. Examples include Nike giving customers online tools to design their own sneakers. At a MacWorld conference in 2007, Sam Lucente, the legendary design and innovation guru at Hewlett-Packard, described his epiphany that designers can no longer design products alone, using their brilliance and magic. They are no longer in the business of product and service design, he stated; they are really in the business of customer co-creation.
During the mid-2000s, co-creation became a driving concept in social media and marketing techniques, where companies such as Converse persuaded large numbers of its most passionate customers to create their own video advertisements for the product. The Web 2.0 phenomenon encompassed many forms of co-creation marketing, as social and consumer communities became "ambassadors", "buzz agents", "smart mobs", and "participants" transforming the product experience. Other examples of co-creation can be found in arts.
Digital era: types of customer co-creation
Thus defining the four types of customer co-creation as below:
- Submission – This section has the least contribution in terms of idea submission by the customer and holds a high degree of firm-led selection in the limited ideas proposed by the customer.
- Tinkering – a unique type of co-creation where the customer comes up with a variety of ideas for the organization, whereas the selection is defined by multiple parameters of the firm. In tinkering, the firm usually releases a final product (e.g. Little Big Planet video games by Sony). Although the users create the platform, the firm decides which ones get published and distributed.
- Collaborative – a mix of leveraging both the firm and users to conclude with the final idea. The customer has full liberty to suggest and select the idea along with the combined efforts of the firm. E.g. Apache Server is a completely open source tool available on the web for all customers.
- Co-designing – the customer approach to select the limited ideas given by the customers. Any community forum where customers have to give ideas into defined areas e.g. for the website of any company etc., whereas the final idea is selected by the community forum by liking/disliking the proposed idea. e.g. Threadless-where customer designs the T-shirt with his own innovation and idea, whereas the firm restricts the customer to design only T-shirts and the final selection is done by the firm itself, but customers have a strong voice in selecting contributions that move forward.
Corporate managementDuring the mid-2000s, these innovations in customer engagement and collaboration expanded and morphed into global economic trends including the co-created development of products and services. Authors published bestselling books developing theories influenced by "co-creation" and customer collaboration. Major concepts included crowdsourcing, coined by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article, open innovation, promoted by Henry Chesbrough, a professor and executive director at the Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation at Berkeley, and consultant Don Tapscott's and Anthony D. Williams's Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, a book that popularized the concept of corporations using mass collaboration and open source innovation.
Of this rapid morphing of co-creation, Ramaswamy and his co-author Francis Gouillart wrote: "Through their interactions with thousands of managers globally who had begun experimenting with co-creation, they discovered that enterprises were building platforms that engaged not only the firm and its customers but also the entire network of suppliers, partners, and employees, in a continuous development of new experiences with individuals."
The rise of customer co-creationThe rise of co-creation could be attributed to three distinct issues as suggested by O'hern & Rindfleisch (2010).
- The information asymmetry between customer demands and manufacturer capability
- Customer empowerment
- The advent and widespread application of digital technology
ProcessSuccessful co-creation requires two key steps.
The contribution of ideas: A firm must convince its customers to submit their ideas (i.e., to contribute). However, receiving contribution is actually quite hard because most customers are quite busy and hardly care about the company's call. Unless customers are incentivized in an attractive way they are reluctant to participate and benefit the company. As a result, most co-creation efforts fail because they don't get many submissions.
Selecting the viable ideas: After receiving the contributions, the firm must then select the most profitable, viable and implementable ones. The challenge of the selection process is that most submissions are not very useful, impractical and difficult to implement. Firms have to deal the submitted ideas in a very subtle way as throughout the process they don't want to reject customer submissions and risk of alienating them which may eventually lead to customer disengagement.
ChallengesAlthough co-creation is an excellent activity to gather unique and various ideas from the customers, but it brings a lot of challenges onto the table such as:
- Pareto principle-Selection of the ideas from multiple redundant ideas submitted. Only 20% of the submitted ideas out of the all holds value for any firm
- Risk in losing out on the brand image – if the ideas highlight more on the negative scenarios of the firm's products or services.
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- Co-Creation on p2pfoundation
- Harvard Business Review on Co-creation
- 90:10 Group Co-creation Consultancy Blog
- World Co-Creation Day
- The Dark Side of Co-creation: a presentation given at the European Marketing Academy Conference in 2010
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- (German) von Tobias Theis
- Co-creation explained in 60 seconds
begin quote from:
Open innovation is a term used to promote an information age mindset toward innovation that runs counter to the secrecy and silo mentality of traditional corporate research labs. The benefits and driving forces behind increased openness have been noted and discussed as far back as the 1960s, especially as it pertains to ...
Mar 21, 2011 - Open innovation is “the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively.”
Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology.
The term was originally referred to as "a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology". More recently, it is defined as "a distributed innovation process based on purposively managed knowledge flows across organizational boundaries, using pecuniary and non-pecuniary mechanisms in line with the organization's business model". This more recent definition acknowledges that open innovation is not solely firm-centric: it also includes creative consumers and communities of user innovators. The boundaries between a firm and its environment have become more permeable; innovations can easily transfer inward and outward between firms and other firms and between firms and creative consumers, resulting in impacts at the level of the consumer, the firm, an industry, and society.
The central idea behind open innovation is that, in a world of widely distributed knowledge, companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own research, but should instead buy or license processes or inventions (i.e. patents) from other companies. In addition, internal inventions not being used in a firm's business should be taken outside the company (e.g. through licensing, joint ventures or spin-offs).
The open innovation paradigm can be interpreted to go beyond just using external sources of innovation such as customers, rival companies, and academic institutions, and can be as much a change in the use, management, and employment of intellectual property as it is in the technical and research driven generation of intellectual property. In this sense, it is understood as the systematic encouragement and exploration of a wide range of internal and external sources for innovative opportunities, the integration of this exploration with firm capabilities and resources, and the exploitation of these opportunities through multiple channels.
- 1 Advantages
- 2 Disadvantages
- 3 Models
- 4 Versus closed innovation
- 5 Open innovation tools
- 6 Open innovation tool comparison
- 7 Terminology
- 8 Versus open source
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
AdvantagesOpen innovation offers several benefits to companies operating on a program of global collaboration:
- Reduced cost of conducting research and development
- Potential for improvement in development productivity
- Incorporation of customers early in the development process
- Increase in accuracy for market research and customer targeting
- Potential for synergism between internal and external innovations
- Potential for viral marketing
DisadvantagesImplementing a model of open innovation is naturally associated with a number of risks and challenges, including:
- Possibility of revealing information not intended for sharing
- Potential for the hosting organization to lose their competitive advantage as a consequence of revealing intellectual property
- Increased complexity of controlling innovation and regulating how contributors affect a project
- Devising a means to properly identify and incorporate external innovation
- Realigning innovation strategies to extend beyond the firm in order to maximize the return from external innovation
Government DrivenIn the UK the Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTP) is a funding mechanism encouraging the partnership between a firm and a knowledge-based partner. A KTP is a collaboration program between a knowledge-based partner (i.e. a research institution), a company partner and one or more associates (i.e. recently qualified persons such as graduates). KTP initiatives aim to deliver significant improvement in business partners’ profitability as a direct result of the partnership through enhanced quality and operations, increased sales and access to new markets. At the end of their KTP project, the three actors involved have to prepare a final report that describes KTP initiative supported the achievement of the project’s innovation goals.
Product platformingThis approach involves developing and introducing a partially completed product, for the purpose of providing a framework or tool-kit for contributors to access, customize, and exploit. The goal is for the contributors to extend the platform product's functionality while increasing the overall value of the product for everyone involved.
Readily available software frameworks such as a software development kit (SDK), or an application programming interface (API) are common examples of product platforms. This approach is common in markets with strong network effects where demand for the product implementing the framework (such as a mobile phone, or an online application) increases with the number of developers that are attracted to use the platform tool-kit. The high scalability of platforming often results in an increased complexity of administration and quality assurance.
Idea competitionsThis model entails implementing a system that encourages competitiveness among contributors by rewarding successful submissions. Developer competitions such as hackathon events fall under this category of open innovation. This method provides organizations with inexpensive access to a large quantity of innovative ideas, while also providing a deeper insight into the needs of their customers and contributors.
Customer immersionWhile mostly oriented toward the end of the product development cycle, this technique involves extensive customer interaction through employees of the host organization. Companies are thus able to accurately incorporate customer input, while also allowing them to be more closely involved in the design process and product management cycle.
Collaborative product design and developmentSimilarly to product platforming, an organization incorporates their contributors into the development of the product. This differs from platforming in the sense that, in addition to the provision of the framework on which contributors develop, the hosting organization still controls and maintains the eventual products developed in collaboration with their contributors. This method gives organizations more control by ensuring that the correct product is developed as fast as possible, while reducing the overall cost of development. Dr. Henry Chesbrough recently supported this model for open innovation in the optics and photonics industry.
Innovation networksSimilarly to idea competitions, an organization leverages a network of contributors in the design process by offering a reward in the form of an incentive. The difference relates to the fact that the network of contributors are used to develop solutions to identified problems within the development process, as opposed to new products. Emphasis needs to be placed on assessing organisational capabilities to ensure value creation in open innovation.
In scienceIn Austria the Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft started a project named "Tell us!" about mental health issues and used the concept of open innovation to crowdsource research questions. The institute also launched the first "Lab for Open Innovation in Science" to teach 20 selected scientists the concept of open innovation over the course of one year. On Facebook the Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft informs about the lab, the participants and teachers and on news on open innovation in science.
Versus closed innovationThe paradigm of closed innovation holds that successful innovation requires control. Particularly, a company should control the generation of their own ideas, as well as production, marketing, distribution, servicing, financing, and supporting. What drove this idea is that, in the early twentieth century, academic and government institutions were not involved in the commercial application of science. As a result, it was left up to other corporations to take the new product development cycle into their own hands. There just was not the time to wait for the scientific community to become more involved in the practical application of science. There also was not enough time to wait for other companies to start producing some of the components that were required in their final product. These companies became relatively self-sufficient, with little communication directed outwards to other companies or universities.
Throughout the years several factors emerged that paved the way for open innovation paradigms:
- The increasing availability and mobility of skilled workers
- The growth of the venture capital market
- External options for ideas sitting on the shelf
- The increasing capability of external suppliers
Open innovation toolsAccording to a case study conducted by Sony Mobile, a stable and flexible way to realize open innovation is by using a tool that is dedicated for said purpose. One key reason, other than commits from communities, regards the possibility of tailoring the tool to internal needs. Such tools can be found as open source or proprietary software.
Open innovation tool comparisonKnown open innovation tools compared regarding relevant features.
- Open source: Is the tool open source?
- Accessibility: Can ideas be added by anyone?
- Sharing: Can ideas be shared and on what channels?
- Vote: Can votes be placed on ideas by anyone?
- Comment: Can ideas be commented on by anyone?
- Analysis: Can you track the origin of the idea's comments or votes?
- Language: What languages are supported?
- Export: Can idea related data be exported?
- Sorted: Can ideas be sorted and categorized for more effective analysis?
|CogniStreamer||No||Yes||No||Yes||Yes||No||English, French, German, Spanish||Yes||No|
|Viima||No||Yes||Facebook, LinkediIn, Twitter, Google+, Yammer||Yes||Yes||Yes||English, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian, Spanish, French||Yes||Yes|
|Ideation360||No||Yes||Facebook, Twitter||Yes||No||No||English, Swedish||Yes||No|
TerminologyModern research of open innovation is divided into two groups, which have several names, but are similar in their essence (discovery and exploitation; outside-in and inside-out; inbound and outbound). The common factor for different names is the direction of innovation, whether from outside the company in, or from inside the company out:
- Revealing (non-pecuniary outbound innovation)
- Selling (pecuniary outbound innovation)
- Sourcing (non-pecuniary inbound innovation)
- Acquiring (pecuniary inbound innovation)
Versus open sourceOpen source and open innovation might conflict on patent issues. This conflict is particularly apparent when considering technologies that may save lives, or other open-source-appropriate technologies that may assist in poverty reduction or sustainable development. However, open source and open innovation are not mutually exclusive, because participating companies can donate their patents to an independent organization, put them in a common pool, or grant unlimited license use to anybody. Hence some open-source initiatives can merge these two concepts: this is the case for instance for IBM with its Eclipse platform, which the company presents as a case of open innovation, where competing companies are invited to cooperate inside an open-innovation network.
In 1997, Eric Raymond, writing about the open-source software movement, coined the term the cathedral and the bazaar. The cathedral represented the conventional method of employing a group of experts to design and develop software (though it could apply to any large-scale creative or innovative work). The bazaar represented the open-source approach. This idea has been amplified by a lot of people, notably Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams in their book Wikinomics. Eric Raymond himself is also quoted as saying that 'one cannot code from the ground up in bazaar style. One can test, debug, and improve in bazaar style, but it would be very hard to originate a project in bazaar mode'. In the same vein, Raymond is also quoted as saying 'The individual wizard is where successful bazaar projects generally start'.
Open-source specialist François Letellier advocates that open source (or free software) is a natural way of innovation in the software industry and that it is an exemplary and very effective form of open innovation, with open-source projects/communities act as innovation intermediaries.
- Discovery Network
- Ideas bank
- Innovation intermediary
- Open innovation intermediaries
- Open-source appropriate technology
- Open data
- Open research
- Open-source hardware
- TED (conference)
- Carr, Nicholas G. (29 May 2007). "The Ignorance of Crowds". Strategy+Business (47).
- West, J.; Gallagher, S. (2006). "Challenges of open innovation: The paradox of firm investment in open-source software". R and D Management. 36 (3): 319. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00436.x.
- Chesbrough, H.; Vanhaverbeke, W.; West, J., eds. (15 April 2008). Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199226467.
- Penin, Julien; Hussler, Caroline; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry (2011). "New shapes and new stakes: a portrait of open innovation as a promising phenomenon". Journal of Innovation Economics (7): 11–29.
- Vemuri, V. K.; Bertone, V. (2004). "Will the Open Source Movement Survive a Litigious Society?". Electronic Markets. 14 (2): 114. doi:10.1080/10196780410001675068.
- Zhao, L.; Deek, F. P. (2004). "User Collaboration in Open Source Software Development". Electronic Markets. 14 (2): 89. doi:10.1080/10196780410001675040.
- Schutte, Corne; Marais, Stephan (2010). "The Development of Open Innovation Models to Assist the Innovation Process". University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
- Hippel, Eric von (2011). "Open User Innovation". In Soegaard, Mads; Dam, Rikke Friis. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction. Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation.
- Innovative Ideas Sources
- Lakhani, K. R.; Panetta, J. A. (2007). "The Principles of Distributed Innovation". Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization. 2 (3): 97. doi:10.1162/itgg.2007.2.3.97.
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Collaboration is where two or more people or organizations work together to realize or achieve a goal or project successfully. Collaboration is very similar to, but more closely aligned than, cooperation.
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Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of behavior and communication. These methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving.
Forms, rubrics, charts and graphs are useful in these situations to objectively document personal traits with the goal of improving performance in current and future projects. Collaboration is also present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common case for using the word.
- 1 Classical examples of collaboration
- 2 Occupational examples
- 3 Wartime collaboration
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
Classical examples of collaboration
Community organization: Intentional Community
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- Hutterite, Austria (16th century)
- Housing units are built and assigned to individual families but belong to the colony and there is very little personal property. Meals are taken by the entire colony in a common long room.
- Oneida Community, Oneida, New York (1848)
- The Oneida Community practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions) and Mutual Criticism, where every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. The goal was to eliminate bad character traits.
- Early Kibbutz settlements founded near Jerusalem (1890)
- A Kibbutz is an Israeli collective community. The movement combines socialism and Zionism in a form of practical Labor Zionism, founded at a time when independent farming was not practical or perhaps more correctly—not practicable. Forced by necessity into communal life, and inspired by their own ideology, the kibbutz members developed a pure communal mode of living that attracted interest from the entire world. While the kibbutzim lasted for several generations as utopian communities, most of today's kibbutzim are scarcely different from the capitalist enterprises and regular towns to which the kibbutzim were originally supposed to be alternatives.
Indigenous CollaborationCollaboration in indigenous communities, particularly in the Americas, often includes the entire community working toward a common goal in a horizontal structure with flexible leadership. Children in some Indigenous American communities work fluidly to collaborate with the rest of the community. They are allowed and want to participate freely with the adults. Children can be contributors in the process of meeting objectives by taking on tasks that suit their skills.
Indigenous learning techniques comprise Learning by Observing and Pitching In. For example, a study of Mayan fathers and children with traditional Indigenous ways of learning worked together in collaboration more frequently when building a 3D model puzzle then Mayan fathers with western schooling. Also, Chillihuani people of the Andes value work and form work parties in which members of each household in the community participate. Children from indigenous-heritage communities want to help around the house voluntarily.
In the Mazahua Indigenous community of Mexico, school children show initiative and autonomy by contributing in their classroom, completing activities as a whole, assisting and correcting their teacher during lectures when a mistake is made. Fifth and sixth graders in the community work with the teacher installing a classroom window; the installation becomes a class project in which the students participate in the process alongside the teacher. They all work together without needing leadership, and their movements are all in sync and flowing. It is not a process of instruction, but rather a hands-on experience in which students work together as a synchronous group with the teacher, switching roles and sharing tasks. In these communities, collaboration is emphasized, and learners are trusted to take initiative. While one works, the other watches intently and all are allowed to attempt tasks with the more experienced stepping in to complete more complex parts, while others pay close attention.
Collaboration under capitalismAyn Rand utterly rejected the notion that one should live an isolated life. She recognized that a crucial way we “develop ourselves” and pursue our rational self-interest is by building strong relationships with other people, whether in business, friendship, romance, or any other kind of life-serving relationship. Rand wrote hundreds of pages about the virtues and benefits of collaborating with others to mutual advantage. She also recognized that, as participants in capitalism, “we’re all connected” through the voluntary division of labor in the free market, where value is exchanged always for value. In presenting her theory of rational egoism, Rand explained why acting in one’s self-interests often entails “looking out” for others to protect the innocent from injustice, to aid our friends and allies, and to protect and support our friends and loved ones.
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- Skunk Works
- Skunk Works is a term used in engineering and technical fields to describe a group within an organization given a high degree of autonomy and unhampered by bureaucracy, tasked with working on advanced or secret projects. Founded at Lockheed in 1943, the team developed highly innovative aircraft in short time frames, even beating its first deadline by 37 days. Creator of the organization, Kelly Johnson is said to have been an 'organizing genius' and had fourteen basic operating rules.
- Manhattan Project
- The Manhattan Project was the project to develop the first nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) during World War II by the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District, it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1941–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.
- While the aforementioned persons were influential in the project itself, the value of this project as an influence on organized collaboration is better attributed to Vannevar Bush. In early 1940, Bush lobbied for the creation of the National Defense Research Committee. Frustrated by previous bureaucratic failures in implementing technology in World War I, Bush sought to organize the scientific power of the United States for greater success.
- The project succeeded in developing and detonating three nuclear weapons in 1945: a test detonation of a plutonium implosion bomb on July 16 (the Trinity test) near Alamogordo, New Mexico; an enriched uranium bomb code-named "Little Boy" on August 6 over Hiroshima, Japan; and a second plutonium bomb, code-named "Fat Man" on August 9 over Nagasaki, Japan.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed: (1) the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, developed as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program; and (2) the "Critical Path Method" (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.
In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interest of the project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and techniques of project management are common even among the widespread application of projects from the software industry to the construction industry. In 1981, the PMI Board of Directors authorized the development of what has become A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), standards and guidelines of practice that are widely used throughout the profession. The International Project Management Association (IPMA), founded in Europe in 1967, has undergone a similar development and instituted the IPMA Project Baseline. Both organizations are now participating in the development of a global project management standard.
:Founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier and other former faculty of Rollins College, Black Mountain was experimental by nature and committed to an interdisciplinary approach, attracting a faculty which included many of America's leading visual artists, poets, and designers. :Operating in a relatively isolated rural location with little budget, Black Mountain College inculcated an informal and collaborative spirit, and over its lifetime attracted a venerable roster of instructors. Some of the innovations, relationships and unexpected connections formed at Black Mountain would prove to have a lasting influence on the postwar American art scene, high culture, and eventually pop culture. Buckminster Fuller met student Kenneth Snelson at Black Mountain, and the result was the first geodesic dome (improvised out of slats in the school's back yard); Merce Cunningham formed his dance company; and John Cage staged his first happening.
- Not a haphazardly conceived venture, Black Mountain College was a consciously directed liberal arts school that grew out of the progressive education movement. In its day it was a unique educational experiment for the artists and writers who conducted it, and as such an important incubator for the American avant garde. Black Mountain proved to be an important precursor to and prototype for many of the alternative colleges of today ranging from the University of California, Santa Cruz to Hampshire College and Evergreen State College, among others.
- Dr. Wolff-Michael Roth and Stuart Lee of the University of Victoria assert that until the early 1990s the individual was the 'unit of instruction' and the focus of research. The two observed that researchers and practitioners switched to the idea that knowing is 'better' thought of as a cultural practice. Roth and Lee also claim that this led to changes in learning and teaching design in which students were encouraged to share their ways of doing mathematics, history, science, with each other. In other words, that children take part in the construction of consensual domains, and 'participate in the negotiation and institutionalisation of … meaning'. In effect, they are participating in learning communities.
- This analysis does not take account of the appearance of Learning communities in the United States in the early 1980s. For example, The Evergreen State College, which is widely considered a pioneer in this area, established an intercollegiate learning community in 1984. In 1985, this same college established The Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education, which focuses on collaborative education approaches, including learning communities as one of its centerpieces.
Classical musicAlthough relatively rare compared with collaboration in popular music, there have been some notable examples of music written in collaboration between classical composers. Perhaps the best-known examples are:
- Hexameron, a set of variations for solo piano on a theme from Vincenzo Bellini's opera I puritani. It was written and first performed in 1837. The contributors were Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Carl Czerny, Sigismond Thalberg, Johann Peter Pixis, and Henri Herz.
- The F-A-E Sonata, a sonata for violin and piano, written in 1853 as a gift for the violinist Joseph Joachim. The composers were Albert Dietrich (first movement), Robert Schumann (second and fourth movements), and Johannes Brahms (third movement).
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ArtsThe romanticized notion of a lone, genius artist has existed since the time of Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists, published in 1568. Vasari promulgated the idea that artistic skill was endowed upon chosen individuals by gods, which created an enduring and largely false popular misunderstanding of many artistic processes. Artists have used collaboration to complete large scale works for centuries, but the myth of the lone artist was not questioned by the public consciousness until the 1960s and 1970s.
Collaborative art groups
- Dada (1913)
- Fluxus (1957)
- Situationist International (1957)
- Experiments in Art and Technology (1967)
- Mujeres Muralistas (1973)
- Colab (1977)
- Guerrilla Girls (1985)
- SITO (1993)
- 2 Easy Fashion (2008)
BalletBallet is, almost always, by nature a collaborative art form. Ballet needs music, it needs dancers, it needs costumes, a venue, lighting, etc. Hypothetically, one person could control all of this. But most often, every work of ballet is the by product of collaboration. From the earliest formal works of ballet, to the great 19th century masterpieces of Pyotr Tchaikovsky and Marius Petipa, to the 20th century masterworks of George Balanchine and Igor Stravinsky, to today’s ballet companies, feature strong collaborative connections between choreographers, composers and costume designers are essential. Within dance as an art form, there is also the collaboration between choreographer and dancer. The choreographer creates a movement in her/his head and then physically demonstrates the movement to the dancer, which the dancer sees and attempts to either mimic or interpret - two or more people striving for a connected goal.
BusinessCollaboration in business can be found both inter- and intra-organization and ranges from the simplicity of a partnership and crowd funding to the complexity of a multinational corporation. Inter-organizational collaboration depicts relationship between two or several organizations in which the participating parties agree to invest resources, mutually achieve goals, share information, resources, rewards and responsibilities, as well as jointly make decisions and solve problems. Collaboration between public, private and voluntary sectors can be effective in tackling complex policy problems, but may be handled more effectively by committed boundary-spanning teams and networks than by formal organizational structures. Collaboration between team members allows for better communication within the organization and throughout the supply chains. It is a way of coordinating different ideas from numerous people to generate a wide variety of knowledge. Collaboration with a selected few firms as opposed to collaboration with a large number of different firms has been shown to positively impact firm performance and innovation outcomes. The recent improvement in technology has provided the world with high speed internet, wireless connection, and web-based collaboration tools like blogs, and wikis, and has as such created a "mass collaboration." People from all over the world are efficiently able to communicate and share ideas through the internet, or even conferences, without any geographical barriers. The power of social networks is beginning to permeate into business culture where many collaborative uses are being found including file sharing and knowledge transfer. Evan Rosen, the author of The Culture of Collaboration, defines collaboration as "working together to create value while sharing virtual or physical space." According to Rosen, command-and-control organizational structures inhibit collaboration and replacing these obsolete structures allows collaboration to flourish.
See also : Management cybernetics
A plethora of studies have shown that collaboration can be a powerful tool towards higher achievement and increased productivity since collective efficacy can significantly boost groups’ aspirations, motivational investment, morale, and resilience to challenges. However, a four-year study of interorganizational collaboration found that successful collaboration can be rapidly derailed through external policy steering, particularly where it undermines relations built on trust.
On a more specific level, coworking spaces are businesses dedicated to providing a space for freelancers to work with others in a collaborative environment. Collaboration is one of the five coworking core values: Collaboration, openness, community, accessibility and sustainability.
As classrooms have become increasingly diverse, so too have the challenges for educators. Due to the diverse needs of students with designated special needs, English languages learners (ELL), and students of varied academic levels, teachers have been led to develop new approaches that provide additional support for their students. In practice, this is an inclusive model where students are not removed from the classroom to receive separate instruction, but rather they remain and receive collaborative instruction by both their general teacher and special education teachers.
Societal changes that have taken place over the past few decades allows new ways of conceptualizing collaboration, and to understand the evolution and expansion of these types of relationships. For example, economic changes that have taken place domestically and internationally have resulted in the transformation from an industry-dependent economy to an information-centered economy that is dependent on new technologies and expansion of industries that provide services. From an educational standpoint, such transformations were projected through federal reports, such as A Nation at Risk in 1983 and What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future in 1996. In these reports, economic success could be assured if students developed the capacity to learn how to “manage teams… and…work together successfully in teams”.
The continuing development of Web 2.0 technologies, such as wikis, blogs, multiplayer games, online communities, and Twitter, among others, has changed the manner in which students communicate and collaborate. Teachers are increasingly using collaborative software to establish virtual learning environments (VLEs). This allows them to share learning materials and feedback with both students and in some cases, parents. See also:
- Collaborative Partnerships: Business/Industry-Education
- Learning circle
- Collaborative partnerships
- Four Cs of 21st century learning
- 21st century skills
MusicMusical collaboration occurs when musicians in different places or groups work on the same album or song. Typically, in today's music word, multiple parties are involved (singers, songwriters, lyrisits, composers, and producers) come together to create one song. For example, one specific collaboration from recent times (2015) was the song "FourFiveSeconds". This single represents a type of collaboration because it is a form of art that was developed by multiple artists with the inclusion of Rihanna (a recent pop idol), Paul McCartney (former guitarist and vocalist for the Beatles), and Kanye West (a currently popular rapper). Collaboration between musicians, especially with regards to jazz, is often heralded as the epitome of complex collaborative practice. Special websites as well as software have been created to facilitate musical collaboration over the Internet resulting in the emergence of Online Bands.
Several awards exist specifically for collaboration in music:
- Grammy Award for Best Country Collaboration with Vocals—awarded since 1988
- Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals—awarded since 1995
- Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration—awarded since 2002
EntertainmentCollaboration in entertainment is a relatively new phenomenon brought on with the advent of social media, reality TV, and video sharing sites such as YouTube and Vimeo. Collaboration occurs when writers, directors, actors, producers and other individuals or groups work on the same television show, short film, or feature-length film. A revolutionary system has been developed by Will Wright for the production of the TV series title Bar Karma on CurrentTV. Special web-based software, titled Storymaker, has been written to facilitate plot collaboration over the Internet. Screenwriters' organizations bring together professional and amateur writers and filmmakers in a collaborative manner for entertainment development.
PublishingCollaboration in publishing can be as simple as dual-authorship or as complex as commons-based peer production. Technological examples include Usenet, e-mail lists, blogs and Wikis while 'brick and mortar' examples include monographs (books) and periodicals such as newspapers, journals and magazines.
ScienceThough there is no political institution organizing the sciences on an international level, a self-organized, global network had formed in the late 20th century. Observed by the rise in co-authorships in published papers, Wagner and Leydesdorff found international collaborations to have doubled from 1990 to 2005. While collaborative authorships within nations has also risen, this has done so at a slower rate and is not cited as frequently.
MedicineIn medicine the physician assistant - physician relationship involves a collaborative plan to be on file with each state board of medicine where the PA works. This plan formally delineates the scope of practice approved by the physician.
Enterprise collaboration tools are centered on attaining collective intelligence and staff collaboration at the organization level, or with partners. These include features such as staff networking, expert recommendations, information sharing, expertise location, peer feedback, and real-time collaboration. At the personal level, this enables employees to enhance social awareness and their profiles and interactions Collaboration encompasses both asynchronous and synchronous methods of communication and serves as an umbrella term for a wide variety of software packages. Perhaps the most commonly associated form of synchronous collaboration are web conferencing using tools, but the term can easily be applied to IP telephony, instant messaging, and rich video interaction with telepresence, as well.
The effectiveness of a collaborative effort is driven by three critical factors: - Communication - Content Management - Workflow control
- The Internet
- The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and test, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place, even among niche interests. An example of this is the free software movement in software development which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and OpenOffice.org (formerly known as Netscape Communicator and StarOffice).
- Commons-based peer production
- Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Yale's Law professor Yochai Benkler to describe a new model of economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the internet) into large, meaningful projects, mostly without traditional hierarchical organization or financial compensation. He compares this to firm production (where a centralized decision process decides what has to be done and by whom) and market-based production (when tagging different prices to different jobs serves as an attractor to anyone interested in doing the job).
- Examples of products created by means of commons-based peer production include Linux, a computer operating system; Slashdot, a news and announcements website; Kuro5hin, a discussion site for technology and culture; Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia; and Clickworkers, a collaborative scientific work. Another example is Socialtext which is a software that uses tools such as wikis and weblogs and helps companies to create a collaborative work environment.
- Massively distributed collaboration
- The term massively distributed collaboration was coined by Mitchell Kapor, in a presentation at UC Berkeley on 2005-11-09, to describe an emerging activity of wikis and electronic mailing lists and blogs and other content-creating virtual communities online.
Wartime collaborationSince World War II the term "collaboration" acquired a negative meaning as referring to persons and groups which help a foreign occupier of their country—due to actual use by people in European countries who worked with and for the Nazi German occupiers. Linguistically, "collaboration" implies more or less equal partners who work together—which was the meaning the Nazi German occupiers were suggesting for ideological reasons but was obviously not the case as one party was an army of occupation and the other were people of the occupied country living under the power of this army. Thus, the term "collaboration" acquired during World War II the additional sense of criminal deeds in the service of the occupying power, including complicity with the occupying power in murder, persecutions, pillage, and economic exploitation as well as participation in a puppet government.
The use of "collaboration" to mean "traitorous cooperation with the enemy," dates from 1940, originally in reference to the Vichy Regime in France, the French civilians who sympathised with Nazi Germany's doctrine, and voluntary troops (LVF) who fought against the Free French and later De Gaulle's French Force. Since then, the words collaboration and collaborateur may have this very pejorative meaning in French (and the abbreviation collabo has only this pejorative and insulting meaning). Nonetheless, collaboration and collaborateur have kept in French their original positive acceptations –with, for example, collaborateur still commonly used in referring to co-workers.
In order to make a distinction, the more specific term Collaborationism is often used for this phenomenon of collaboration with an occupying army. However, there is no water-tight distinction; "Collaboration" and "Collaborator", as well as "Collaborationism" and "Collaborationist", are often used in this pejorative sense—and even more so, the equivalent terms in French and other languages spoken in countries which experienced direct Nazi occupation.
|Look up collaboration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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- Classical music written in collaboration
- Collaborative editing
- Collaborative governance
- Collaborative innovation network
- Collaborative leadership
- Collaborative search engine
- Collaborative software
- Collaborative translation
- Community film
- Conference call
- Critical thinking
- Design thinking
- Digital Collaboration
- Intranet portal
- Knowledge management
- Learning circle
- Role-based collaboration
- The Culture of Collaboration
- Commons-based peer production
- Daugherty, Patricia J, R. Glenn Richey, Anthony S. Roath, Soonhong Min, Haozhe Chen, Aaron D. Arndt, Stefan E. Genchev (2006), "Is Collaboration Paying Off For Firms?" Business Horizons, Vol. 49, pp. 61–70.
- Lewin, Bruce. "The Tension in Collaboration".
- London, Scott. "Collaboration and Community"
- Marcum, James W. After the Information Age: A Dynamic Learning Manifesto. Vol. 231. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2006.
- Richey, R. Glenn, Anthony S. Roath, Judith S. Whipple, and Stan Fawcett (2010), "Exploring Governance Theory of Supply Chain Integration: Barriers and Facilitators to Integration," Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 237–256
- Rosen, Evan.The Bounty Effect: 7 Steps to The Culture of Collaboration
- Rosen, Evan.The Culture of Collaboration: Maximizing Time, Talent and Tools to Create Value in the Global Economy
- Schneider, Florian: Collaboration: Some Thoughts Concerning New Ways of Learning and Working Together., in: Academy, edited by Angelika Nollert and Irit Rogoff, 280 pages, Revolver Verlag, ISBN 3-86588-303-6.
- Min, Soonhong, Anthony S. Roath, Patricia J. Daugherty, Stefan E. Genchev, Haozhe Chen, Aaron D. Arndt and R. Glenn Richey (2005), “Supply Chain Collaboration: What’s Really Happening,” International Journal of Logistic Management, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 237–256.
- The Power of Collectives, IT NEXT, Jatinder Singh https://web.archive.org/web/20101228101119/http://www.itnext.in/content/power-collectives.html
- Spence, Muneera U. "Graphic Design Collaborative Processes: a Course in Collaboration." Oregon State University. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: AIGA, 2005.
- Toivonen, Tuukka (2013) "The Emergence of the Social Innovation Community: Towards Collaborative Changemaking?" University of Oxford. Available on SSRN. (See section on "Cultures of Changemaking and the Collaborative Logic")
- Echavarria, Martin, (2015). Enabling Collaboration – Achieving Success Through Strategic Alliances and Partnerships. LID Publishing Inc. ISBN 9780986079337.