Saturday, January 11, 2014
If I understand the word "disruption" correctly, in this case it means basically "the way all manufacturing in the world has been done before 3D printers is now beginning to be disrupted and done by 3Dprinters instead of the way it was done before. So, more and more unless something is custom built one at a time or a prototype it won't be made by hand it will tend to be made by 3D printers worldwide. Some people obviously will still use the old ways just like people still play records, use 8 tracks, cassette players, play CDs and DVDs etc. However, now manufacturing and even making food has changed to 3d prining as the new model of manufacturing both food and things which starts in the developed world but will also eventually will move to the developing world as well.
3D Printing: On the Brink of Disruption
Share This1518030If you’re a confessed tinkerer like me, it’s hard not to get excited about 3D printing. Dream it and you can build it. Using CAD designs, 3D printers fabricate solid objects from digital images. Believe it or not, 3D printers are making everything from pizza and high-fashion clothing to human organs and parts for the space shuttle.
Because 3D printing has the potential to turn every large enterprise, small business and living room into a factory I don’t feel it’s exaggerating to say 3D printing is one of the most important inventions since the personal computer. According to Gartner, “The 3D printer market will grow from $288 million to more than $5.7 billion by 2017 as consumer 3D printing hype accelerates 3D printer purchases by enterprises worldwide.”*
Should You Add 3D Printing to Your Portfolio?Developed in the 80s, 3D printing is nothing new. Only now it’s exponentially more cost-effective and efficient than ever before. As you consider how 3D printing could provide your business with a competitive advantage, you should focus like a laser on your business goals. What problems will 3D printing solve for your company: rapid prototyping, uniquely customized products, etc?
Like most emerging technologies, 3D printing can wind up wasting your time and distracting you from your priorities. (You can explore the “worst of the 3D-printing hype” here). Used wisely, 3D printing will help companies to gain an edge by customizing products at rapid rates, producing breakthrough products at hyper-speed, and masterminding new business models.
The Maker community is already setting up 3D printing storefronts. UPS is piloting 3D printing services. And, GE recently acquired a 3D printing company to engage in industrial 3D printing.
During his 2013 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama declared, “3D printing has the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything.” Yet, despite 3D printing’s boundless possibilities, it hasn’t entered the everyday vernacular of business executives or consumers. Next year that could change as patents on 3D printers expire and devices flood the marketplace.
Why IT is Important in 3D PrintingEveryone is excited about the democratization of technology and devoting a lot of energy to disavowing the IT department’s role in power user computing. But, people who say that the IT department isn’t needed for 3D printing aren’t seeing the bigger picture. Here’s why IT should be involved:
- CIOs can evaluate 3D printing for disruptive potential by engaging other C-Suite peers in discussions about the possibilities, linking the technology to business goals and exploring 3D printing with rapid prototyping.
- IT must guide their organizations in the use of CAD data files required for 3D printing—creating new data types, new data models, new content types to search and organize, etc.
- 3D items must be designed or imaged, requiring new cameras, scanners, CAD tools, etc. In addition, enterprise-owned 3D printers are new devices that need to be connected to networks and secured.
*Gartner Forecast: 3D Printers, Worldwide, 2013, Pete Basiliere; Zalak Shah; Yulan Li, 27 September 2013
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Saturday, September 7, 2013
I realized that many of you might not have heard about what a breakthrough 3d technology is yet. So, I thought I would share again the wikipedia site about 3d printing.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printingAdditive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D printing is achieved ...
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Part of a series on the|
|History of printing|
A materials printer usually performs 3D printing processes using digital technology. The first working 3D printer was created in 1984 by Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corp. Since the start of the 21st century there has been a large growth in the sales of these machines, and their price has dropped substantially. According to Wohlers Associates, a consultancy, the market for 3D printers and services was worth $2.2 billion worldwide in 2012, up 29% from 2011.
The 3D printing technology is used for both prototyping and distributed manufacturing with applications in architecture, construction (AEC), industrial design, automotive, aerospace, military, engineering, civil engineering, dental and medical industries, biotech (human tissue replacement), fashion, footwear, jewelry, eyewear, education, geographic information systems, food, and many other fields. It has been speculated that 3D printing may become a mass market item because open source 3D printing can easily offset their capital costs by enabling consumers to avoid costs associated with purchasing common household objects.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 General principles
- 3 Additive processes
- 4 Printers
- 5 Applications
- 6 Intellectual property
- 7 Effects of 3D printing
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
TerminologyAlthough scientists and technicians have long been fascinated with the idea of replicating technology, it was not until the 1980s that the concept of 3D printing really began to be taken seriously. In 1982 , the first published account of a printed solid model was made by Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute. However, the man most often credited with inventing the language of 'modern' 3D printer is Charles W. Hull, who first patented the term 'stereolithography' (defined as "system for generating three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed") in 1984.
The term additive manufacturing refers to technologies that create objects through a sequential layering process. Objects that are manufactured additively can be used anywhere throughout the product life cycle, from pre-production (i.e. rapid prototyping) to full-scale production (i.e. rapid manufacturing), in addition to tooling applications and post-production customization.
In manufacturing, and machining in particular, subtractive methods are typically coined as traditional methods. The very term subtractive manufacturing is a retronym developed in recent years to distinguish it from newer additive manufacturing techniques. Although fabrication has included methods that are essentially "additive" for centuries (such as joining plates, sheets, forgings, and rolled work via riveting, screwing, forge welding, or newer kinds of welding), it did not include the information technology component of model-based definition. Machining (generating exact shapes with high precision) has typically been subtractive, from filing and turning to milling and grinding.
ModelingAdditive manufacturing takes virtual blueprints from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software and "slices" them into digital cross-sections for the machine to successively use as a guideline for printing. Depending on the machine used, material or a binding material is deposited on the build bed or platform until material/binder layering is complete and the final 3D model has been "printed."
A standard data interface between CAD software and the machines is the STL file format. An STL file approximates the shape of a part or assembly using triangular facets. Smaller facets produce a higher quality surface. PLY is a scanner generated input file format, and VRML (or WRL) files are often used as input for 3D printing technologies that are able to print in full color.
PrintingTo perform a print, the machine reads the design from an .stl file and lays down successive layers of liquid, powder, paper or sheet material to build the model from a series of cross sections. These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross sections from the CAD model, are joined or automatically fused to create the final shape. The primary advantage of this technique is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric feature.
Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dpi (dots per inch), or micrometers. Typical layer thickness is around 100 micrometers (µm), although some machines such as the Objet Connex series and 3D Systems' ProJet series can print layers as thin as 16 µm. X-Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers. The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 µm in diameter.
Construction of a model with contemporary methods can take anywhere from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model. Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, although it varies widely depending on the type of machine used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously.
Traditional techniques like injection molding can be less expensive for manufacturing polymer products in high quantities, but additive manufacturing can be faster, more flexible and less expensive when producing relatively small quantities of parts. 3D printers give designers and concept development teams the ability to produce parts and concept models using a desktop size printer.
FinishingThough the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution, and then removing material with a higher-resolution subtractive process can achieve greater precision.
Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts. Some are able to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously. Some also utilize supports when building. Supports are removable or dissolvable upon completion of the print, and are used to support overhanging features during construction.
A number of additive processes are now available. They differ in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that can be used. Some methods melt or soften material to produce the layers, e.g. selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), while others cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies, e.g. stereolithography (SLA). With laminated object manufacturing (LOM), thin layers are cut to shape and joined together (e.g. paper, polymer, metal). Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, and some companies consequently offer a choice between powder and polymer for the material from which the object is built. Some companies use standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype. The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, cost of the 3D printer, cost of the printed prototype, and cost and choice of materials and color capabilities.
Printers that work directly with metals are expensive. In some cases, however, less expensive printers can be used to make a mould, which is then used to make metal parts.
|Extrusion||Fused deposition modeling (FDM)||Thermoplastics (e.g. PLA, ABS), HDPE, eutectic metals, edible materials|
|Wire||Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3)||Almost any metal alloy|
|Granular||Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)||Almost any metal alloy|
|Electron beam melting (EBM)||Titanium alloys|
|Selective laser melting (SLM)||Titanium alloys, Cobalt Chrome alloys, Stainless Steels, Aluminium|
|Selective heat sintering (SHS)||Thermoplastic powder|
|Selective laser sintering (SLS)||Thermoplastics, metal powders, ceramic powders|
|Powder bed and inkjet head 3D printing||Plaster-based 3D printing (PP)||Plaster|
|Laminated||Laminated object manufacturing (LOM)||Paper, metal foil, plastic film|
|Light polymerised||Stereolithography (SLA)||photopolymer|
|Digital Light Processing (DLP)||photopolymer|
Extrusion depositionS. Scott Crump in the late 1980s and was commercialized in 1990 by Stratasys. With the expiration of patent on this technology there is now a large open-source development community this type of 3D printer (e.g. RepRaps) and many commercial and DIY variants, which have dropped the cost by two orders of magnitude.
Fused deposition modeling uses a plastic filament or metal wire that is wound on a coil and unreeled to supply material to an extrusion nozzle, which turns the flow on and off. The nozzle heats to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions by a numerically controlled mechanism that is directly controlled by a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software package. The model or part is produced by extruding small beads of thermoplastic material to form layers as the material hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle. Stepper motors or servo motors are typically employed to move the extrusion head.
Various polymers are used, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonate (PC), polylactic acid (PLA), high density polyethylene (HDPE), PC/ABS, and polyphenylsulfone (PPSU). In general the polymer is in the form of a filament, which can be fabricated from virgin resins or from post-consumer waste by recyclebots.
FDM has some restrictions on the shapes that may be fabricated. For example, FDM usually cannot produce stalactite-like structures, since they would be unsupported during the build. These have to be avoided or a thin support may be designed into the structure which can be broken away during finishing processes.
Granular materials bindingsinter the media into a solid. Examples include selective laser sintering (SLS), with both metals and polymers (e.g. PA, PA-GF, Rigid GF, PEEK, PS, Alumide, Carbonmide, elastomers), and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS).
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) was developed and patented by Dr. Carl Deckard and Dr. Joseph Beaman at the University of Texas at Austin in the mid-1980s, under sponsorship of DARPA. A similar process was patented without being commercialized by R. F. Housholder in 1979.
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layerwise method with similar mechanical properties to conventional manufactured metals.
Electron beam melting (EBM) is a similar type of additive manufacturing technology for metal parts (e.g. titanium alloys). EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum. Unlike metal sintering techniques that operate below melting point, EBM parts are fully dense, void-free, and very strong.
Another method consists of an inkjet 3D printing system. The printer creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster, or resins) and printing a binder in the cross-section of the part using an inkjet-like process. This is repeated until every layer has been printed. This technology allows the printing of full color prototypes, overhangs, and elastomer parts. The strength of bonded powder prints can be enhanced with wax or thermoset polymer impregnation.
LaminationIn some printers, paper can be used as the build material, resulting in a lower cost to print. During the 1990s some companies marketed printers that cut cross sections out of special adhesive coated paper using a carbon dioxide laser, and then laminated them together.
In 2005, Mcor Technologies Ltd developed a different process using ordinary sheets of office paper, a Tungsten carbide blade to cut the shape, and selective deposition of adhesive and pressure to bond the prototype.
There are also a number of companies selling printers that print laminated objects using thin plastic and metal sheets.
PhotopolymerizationChuck Hull. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography (SLA) to produce a solid part from a liquid.This process dramatically redefined previous efforts, from the Photosculpture method of François Willème (1830-1905) in 1860 through the photopolymer process of Mitsubishi`s Matsubara in 1974.
In digital light processing (DLP), a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP projector under safelight conditions. The exposed liquid polymer hardens. The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again exposed to light. The process repeats until the model has been built. The liquid polymer is then drained from the vat, leaving the solid model. The EnvisionTec Ultra is an example of a DLP rapid prototyping system.
Inkjet printer systems like the Objet PolyJet system spray photopolymer materials onto a build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 µm) until the part is completed. Each photopolymer layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. The gel-like support material, which is designed to support complicated geometries, is removed by hand and water jetting. It is also suitable for elastomers.
Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D microfabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerization. This approach traces the desired 3D object in a block of gel using a focused laser. Due to the nonlinear nature of photoexcitation, the gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused and the remaining gel is then washed away. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures with moving and interlocked parts.
Yet another approach uses a synthetic resin that is solidified using LEDs.
Printers for domestic useDIY/enthusiast/early adopter communities, with additional ties to the academic and hacker communities.
RepRap is one of the longest running projects in the desktop category. The RepRap project aims to produce a free and open source software (FOSS) 3D printer, whose full specifications are released under the GNU General Public License, and which is capable of replicating itself by printing many of its own (plastic) parts to create more machines. Research is under way to enable the device to print circuit boards and metal parts.
Because of the FOSS aims of RepRap, many related projects have used their design for inspiration, creating an ecosystem of related or derivative 3D printers, most of which are also open source designs. The availability of these open source designs means that variants of 3D printers are easy to invent. The quality and complexity of printer designs, however, as well as the quality of kit or finished products, varies greatly from project to project. This rapid development of open source 3D printers is gaining interest in many spheres as it enables hyper-customization and the use of public domain designs to fabricate open source appropriate technology through conduits such as Thingiverse and Cubify. This technology can also assist initiatives in sustainable development since technologies are easily and economically made from resources available to local communities.
The cost of 3D printers has decreased dramatically since about 2010, with machines that used to cost $20,000 costing less than $1,000. For instance, as of 2013, several companies and individuals are selling parts to build various RepRap designs, with prices starting at about €400 / US$500. The price of printer kits vary from US$400 for the Printrbot Jr. (derived from the previous RepRap models), to US$599 for the RoBo 3D Printer to over US$2000 for the Fab@Home 2.0 two-syringe system. The Shark 3D printer comes fully assembled for less than US$2000. The open source Fab@Home project has developed printers for general use with anything that can be squirted through a nozzle, from chocolate to silicone sealant and chemical reactants. Printers following the project's designs have been available from suppliers in kits or in pre-assembled form since 2012 at prices in the US$2000 range.
Printers for commercial and domestic useThe development and hyper-customization of the RepRap-based 3D printers has produced a new category of printers suitable for both domestic and commercial use. The least expensive assembled machine available is the Solidoodle 2, while the RepRapPro's Huxley DIY kit is reputedly[weasel words] one of the more reliable of the lower-priced machines, at around US$680. There are other RepRap-based high-end kits and fully assembled machines that have been enhanced to print at high speed and high definition. Depending on the application, the print resolution and speed of manufacturing lies somewhere between a personal printer and an industrial printer. A list of printers with pricing and other information is maintained. Most recently delta robots have been utilized for 3D printing to increase fabrication speed further.
Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands and thus undermines economies of scale. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did....Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750—or the printing press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.toolroom end of the manufacturing spectrum. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of new parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods (typically slowly and expensively). With technological advances in additive manufacturing, however, and the dissemination of those advances into the business world, additive methods are moving ever further into the production end of manufacturing in creative and sometimes unexpected ways. Parts that were formerly the sole province of subtractive methods can now in some cases be made more profitably via additive ones.
Standard applications include design visualization, prototyping/CAD, metal casting, architecture, education, geospatial, healthcare, and entertainment/retail.
Rapid prototypingrapid prototyping by universities and commercial companies.
Rapid manufacturingAdvances in RP technology have introduced materials that are appropriate for final manufacture, which has in turn introduced the possibility of directly manufacturing finished components. One advantage of 3D printing for rapid manufacturing lies in the relatively inexpensive production of small numbers of parts.
Rapid manufacturing is a new method of manufacturing and many of its processes remain unproven. 3D printing is now entering the field of rapid manufacturing and was identified as a "next level" technology by many experts in a 2009 report. One of the most promising processes looks to be the adaptation of laser sintering (LS), one of the better-established rapid prototyping methods. As of 2006, however, these techniques were still very much in their infancy, with many obstacles to be overcome before RM could be considered a realistic manufacturing method.
Mass customizationCompanies have created services where consumers can customize objects using simplified web based customization software, and order the resulting items as 3D printed unique objects. This now allows consumers to create custom cases for their mobile phones. Nokia has released the 3D designs for its case so that owners can customize their own case and have it 3D printed.
|This section requires expansion. (November 2012)|
Many printers now offer twin print heads. However, these are used to manufacture single (sets of) parts in multiple colors/materials.
Few studies have yet been done in this field to see if conventional subtractive methods are comparable to additive methods.
Domestic and hobbyist uses
|This section requires expansion. (May 2012)|
The open source Fab@Home project has developed printers for general use. They have been used in research environments to produce chemical compounds with 3D printing technology, including new ones, initially without immediate application as proof of principle. The printer can print with anything that can be dispensed from a syringe as liquid or paste. The developers of the chemical application envisage that this technology could be used for both industrial and domestic use. Including, for example, enabling users in remote locations to be able to produce their own medicine or household chemicals.
ClothingDesigner Iris van Herpen started showing 3D printed pieces as early as 2010 Amsterdam Fashion week. In 2012, Continuum Fashions started offering 3D printed shoes for sale to the general public, and the next year unveiled a ready-to-wear bikini called the N12. Also 2013, burlesque performer Dita Von Teese gained attention wearing a gown printed into rigid nylon, specifically designed for her body. Nike is using 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes for athletes.
3D printing servicesSome companies offer on-line 3D printing services open to both consumers and industries. Such services require people to upload their 3D designs to the company website. Designs are then 3D printed using industrial 3D printers and either shipped to the customer or in some cases, the consumer can pick the object up at the store.
Research into new applicationsFuture applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific equipment or other science-based applications like reconstructing fossils in paleontology, replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology, reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology, and reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene investigations. The technology is even being explored for building construction.
In 2005, academic journals had begun to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology. By 2007 the mass media followed with an article in the Wall Street Journal and Time Magazine, listing a 3D printed design among their 100 most influential designs of the year. During the 2011 London Design Festival, an installation, curated by Murray Moss and focused on 3D Printing, was held in the Victoria and Albert Museum (the V&A). The installation was called Industrial Revolution 2.0: How the Material World will Newly Materialize.
As of 2012, 3D printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems. Several terms have been used to refer to this field of research: organ printing, bio-printing, body part printing, and computer-aided tissue engineering, among others.
A proof-of-principle project at the University of Glasgow, UK, in 2012 showed that it is possible to use 3D printing techniques to create chemical compounds, including new ones. They first printed chemical reaction vessels, then used the printer to squirt reactants into them as "chemical inks" which would then react. They have produced new compounds to verify the validity of the process, but have not pursued anything with a particular application. Cornell Creative Machines Lab has confirmed that it is possible to produce customized food with 3D Hydrocolloid Printing.
The use of 3D scanning technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of moulding techniques that in many cases can be more expensive, more difficult, or too invasive to be performed, particularly for precious or delicate cultural heritage artifacts where direct contact with the molding substances could harm the original object's surface.
An additional use being developed is building printing, or using 3D printing to build buildings. This could allow faster construction for lower costs, and has been investigated for construction of off-Earth habitats.
Employing additive layer technology offered by 3D printing, Terahertz devices which act as waveguides, couplers and bends have been created. The complex shape of these devices could not be achieved using conventional fabrication techniques. Commercially available professional grade printer EDEN 260V was used to create structures with minimum feature size of 100 µm. The printed structures were later DC sputter coated with gold (or any other metal) to create a Terahertz Plasmonic Device. 
In 2013, Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys, with living tissue. Researchers in China have been able to successfully print human organs using specialized 3D bio printers that use living cells instead of plastic. Researchers at Hangzhou Dianzi University actually went as far as inventing their own 3D printer for the complex task, dubbed the “Regenovo” which is a "3D bio printer." Xu Mingen, Regenovo's developer, said that it takes the printer under an hour to produce either a mini liver sample or a four to five inch ear cartilage sample. Xu also predicted that fully functional printed organs may be possible within the next ten to twenty years. In the same year, researchers at the University of Hasselt, in Belgium had successfully printed a new jawbone for an 83-year-old Belgian woman. The woman is now able to chew, speak and breathe normally again after a machine printed her a new jawbone.
In Bahrain, large-scale 3D printing using a sandstone-like material has been used to create unique coral-shaped structures, which encourage coral polyps to colonize and regenerate damaged reefs. These structures have a much more natural shape than other structures used to create artificial reefs, and have a neutral pH which concrete does not.
Intellectual propertyThree different sorts of intellectual property are commonly defined: patent, copyright and trademark. Patents have to do with protecting how something works, and last up to about 25 years, depending on the jurisdiction. Copyrights protect artistic works, and generally last for the duration of the artist's life plus 70 years.
Purely functional items, and their plans and documentation, more than 25 years old are usually no longer patented and can be freely copied, scanned and 3D printed.
However, if an item has artistic features, those artistic features are generally considered copyrighted. When a feature has both artistic and functional merits, when the question has appeared in US court, the courts have often held the feature is not copyrightable unless it can be separated from the functional aspects of the item.
Effects of 3D printingAdditive manufacturing, starting with today's infancy period, requires manufacturing firms to be flexible, ever-improving users of all available technologies in order to remain competitive. Advocates of additive manufacturing also predict that this arc of technological development will counter globalisation, as end users will do much of their own manufacturing rather than engage in trade to buy products from other people and corporations. The real integration of the newer additive technologies into commercial production, however, is more a matter of complementing traditional subtractive methods rather than displacing them entirely.
Space explorationAs early as 2010, work began on applications of 3D printing in zero or low gravity environments. The primary concept involves creating basic items such as hand tools or other more complicated devices "on demand" versus using valuable resources such as fuel or cargo space to carry the items into space.
Additionally, NASA is conducting tests to assess the potential of 3D printing to make space exploration cheaper and more efficient. Rocket parts built using this technology have passed NASA firing tests. In July of 2013, two rocket engine injectors performed as well as traditionally constructed parts during hot-fire tests which exposed them to temperatures approaching 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit (3,316 degrees Celsius) and extreme pressures.
FirearmsIn 2012, the U.S.-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to "[design] a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer." Defense Distributed has also designed a 3D printable AR-15 type rifle lower receiver (capable of lasting more than 650 rounds) and a 30 round M16 magazine. Soon after Defense Distributed succeeded in designing the first working blueprint to produce a plastic gun with a 3D printer in May 2013, the United States Department of State demanded that they remove the instructions from their website.
After Defense Distributed released their plans, questions were raised regarding the effects that 3D printing and widespread consumer-level CNC machining may have on gun control effectiveness. 
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Joint Regional Intelligence Center released a memo stating that "significant advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing capabilities, availability of free digital 3D printer files for firearms components, and difficulty regulating file sharing may present public safety risks from unqualified gun seekers who obtain or manufacture 3D printed guns," and that "proposed legislation to ban 3D printing of weapons may deter, but cannot completely prevent their production. Even if the practice is prohibited by new legislation, online distribution of these digital files will be as difficult to control as any other illegally traded music, movie or software files."
Internationally, where gun controls are generally tighter than in the United States, some commentators have said the impact may be more strongly felt, as alternative firearms are not as easily obtainable. European officials have noted that producing a 3D printed gun would be illegal under their gun control laws, and that criminals have access to other sources of weapons, but noted that as the technology improved the risks of an effect would increase. Downloads of the plans from the UK, Germany, Spain, and Brazil were heavy.
Attempting to restrict the distribution over the Internet of gun plans has been likened to the futility of preventing the widespread distribution of DeCSS which enabled DVD ripping. After the US government had Defense Distributed take down the plans, they were still widely available via The Pirate Bay and other file sharing sites. Some US legislators have proposed regulations on 3D printers, to prevent them being used for printing guns. 3D printing advocates have suggested that such regulations would be futile, could cripple the 3D printing industry, and could infringe on free speech rights.
- 3D modeling
- 3D scanner
- Additive Manufacturing File Format
- Cladding (metalworking)
- Mcor Technologies Ltd
- RepRap Project
- Fab lab
- List of common 3D test models
- List of emerging technologies
- Self-replicating machine
- Tissue engineering
- Milling (machining) - computer controlled machine production
- Numerical control - DIY machine production
- Replicator (Star Trek)
- X3D - royalty free file format suitable for 3D Printing
- The engineer: The rise of additive manufacturing
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- 3ders.org: Casting aluminum parts directly from 3D printed PLA parts
- Chee Kai Chua; Kah Fai Leong, Chu Sing Lim (2003). Rapid Prototyping. World Scientific. p. 124. ISBN 9789812381170.
- Deckard, C., "Method and apparatus for producing parts by selective sintering", U.S. Patent 4,863,538, filed October 17, 1986, published September 5, 1989.
- Housholder, R., "Molding Process", U.S. Patent 4,247,508, filed December 3, 1979, published January 27, 1981.
- Hiemenz, Joe. "Rapid prototypes move to metal components (EE Times, 3/9/2007)".
- "Rapid Manufacturing by Electron Beam Melting". SMU.edu.
- Article in Rapid Today, "3D Printer Uses Standard Paper", "Rapid Today", May, 2008
Willème's "photosculpture" method consisted of photographing a subject
from a variety of angles (but all at the same distance from the subject)
and then projecting each photograph onto a screen, whence a pantagraph
was used to trace the outline onto modeling clay. See:
- Beaumont Newhall (May 1958) "Photosculpture," Image, 7 (5) : 100-105. Available on-line at: Eastman House.org .
- François Willème, "Photo-sculpture," U.S. Patent no. 43,822 (August 9, 1864). Available on-line at: U.S. Patent Office
- François Willème (May 15, 1861) "La sculpture photographique", Le Moniteur de la photographie, p. 34.
- "EnvisionTec Ultra". EnvisionTEC.
- Johnson, R. Colin. "Cheaper avenue to 65 nm? (EE Times, 3/30/2007)".
- "The World's Smallest 3D Printer". TU Wien. 12 September 2011.
- Kalish, Jon. "A Space For DIY People To Do Their Business (NPR.org, November 28, 2010)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Computerworld New Zealand
- Pearce, Joshua M.; et al. "3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development (Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol.3, No. 4, 2010, pp. 17–29)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Disruptions: 3-D Printing Is on the Fast Track – NYTimes.com
- 3ders.org 3D printers list with prices
- New Scientist magazine: Desktop fabricator may kick-start home revolution, 9 January 2007. Online edition available to subscribers
- See for example the Rostock
- "Print me a Stradivarius – How a new manufacturing technology will change the world". Economist Technology. 2011-02-10. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Vincent & Earls 2011.
- Wohlers Report 2009, State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report on Additive Manufacturing, [create ihttp://www.wohlersassociates.com/ Wohlers Associates], ISBN 0-9754429-5-3
- Hopkinson, N & Dickens, P 2006, 'Emerging Rapid Manufacturing Processes', in Rapid Manufacturing; An industrial revolution for the digital age, Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, W. Sussex
- "The action doll you designed, made real". makie.me. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- My Robot Nation
- Turn Your Baby's Cry Into an iPhone Case. Bloomberg Businessweek. 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2013-02-20
- Nokia backs 3D printing for mobile phone cases. BBC News Online. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-02-20
- 3D printed clock and gears
- 3D printed planetary gears
- Successful Sumpod 3D printing of a herringbone gear
- MD Symes et al., Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis, Nature Chemistry 4,349–354 (2012), doi:10.1038/nchem.1313
- New Scientist magazine: Make your own drugs with a 3D printer, 17 April 2012. Online edition available to subscribers
- Cronin, Lee (2012-04-17). "3D printer developed for drugs" (video interview [5:21]). Glasgow University: BBC News Online. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
- Sterling, Bruce (2011-06-27). "Spime Watch: Dassault Systèmes' 3DVIA and Sculpteo (Wired, June 27, 2011)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Vance, Ashlee (2011-01-12). "The Wow Factor of 3-D Printing (The New York Times, January 12, 2011)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Pearce, Joshua M. 2012. “Building Research Equipment with Free, Open-Source Hardware.” Science 337 (6100): 1303–1304.open access
- Zhang, et al. (2013) Open-Source 3D-Printable Optics Equipment. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59840.
- Séquin, Carlo H. "Rapid prototyping: a 3d visualization tool takes on sculpture and mathematical forms (Communications of the ACM – 3d hard copy, Volume 48 Issue 6, June 2005, pp. 66–73)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Guth, Robert A. "How 3-D Printing Figures To Turn Web Worlds Real (The Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2007)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Bathsheba Grossman's Quin.MGX for Materialise listed in Time Magazine's Design 100
- Williams, Holly (2011-08-28). "Object lesson: How the world of decorative art is being revolutionised by 3D printing (The Independent, 28 August 2011)". London. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- "3D-printed sugar network to help grow artificial liver", BBC, 2 July 2012.
- "Building body parts with 3D printing", The Engineer, 24 May 2010.
- Silverstein, Jonathan. "'Organ Printing' Could Drastically Change Medicine (ABC News, 2006)". Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- "Hydrocolloid Printing", Cornell Creative, 2012.
- Cignoni, Paolo; Scopigno, Roberto (June 2008). "Sampled 3D models for CH applications: A viable and enabling new medium or just a technological exercise?" (PDF). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage 1 (1): 1. doi:10.1145/1367080.1367082.
- "The World’s First 3D-Printed Building Will Arrive In 2014". TechCrunch. 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Diaz, Jesus (2013-01-31). "This Is What the First Lunar Base Could Really Look Like". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- What's the Deal with copyright and 3D printing? Michael Weinberg JANUARY 2013, Institute for Emerging Innovation
- Clive Thompson on 3-D Printing’s Legal Morass Wired, Clive Thompson 05.30.12 1:43 PM
- Albert 2011.
- Nosowitz, Dan (06.05.2013). "NASA Wants To Bring 3-D Printers To Space". Popular Science. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- Wall, Mike. "3D-Printed Rocket Parts Excel in NASA Tests". Space.com. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- Greenberg, Andy (2012-08-23). "'Wiki Weapon Project' Aims To Create A Gun Anyone Can 3D-Print At Home". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
- Poeter, Damon (2012-08-24). "Could a 'Printable Gun' Change the World?". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
- http://www.infowars.com/3d-printed-lower-receiver-withstands-more-than-650-rounds-gun-grabbers-panic/ 3D Printed Lower Receiver Withstands More than 650 Rounds, Gun Grabbers Panic. Adan Salazar. Infowars.com. March 3, 2013
- "Weapons made with 3-D printers could test gun-control efforts". Washington Post.
- Rayner, Alex (6 May 2013). "3D-printable guns are just the start, says Cody Wilson". The Guardian.
- Ball, James (10 May 2013). "US government attempts to stifle 3D-printer gun designs will ultimately fail". The Guardian.
- Vincent; Earls, Alan R. (February 2011). "Origins: A 3D Vision Spawns Stratasys, Inc. Today's Machining World's new feature "Origins" tells us the stories of how successful technologies, companies and people got their start. This month we interview a pioneer of rapid prototyping technology, Scott Crump, the founder and CEO of Stratasys Inc". Today's Machining World (Oak Forest, Illinois, USA: Screw Machine World Inc) 7 (1): 24–25.
- Albert, Mark [Editor in Chief] (2011-01-17). "Subtractive plus additive equals more than ( − + + = > ): subtractive and additive processes can be combined to develop innovative manufacturing methods that are superior to conventional methods ['Mark: My Word' column—Editor's Commentary]". Modern Machine Shop (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA: Gardner Publications Inc) 83 (9): 14.
- Stephens, Brent; Parham Azimia, Zeineb El Orcha, Tiffanie Ramos (November 2013). "Ultrafine Particle Emissions from Desktop 3D Printers". Atmospheric Environment (in English) 79: 334–339. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.06.050. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- Easton, Thomas A. (November 2008). "The 3D Trainwreck: How 3D Printing Will Shake Up Manufacturing". Analog 128 (11): 50–63.
- Wright, Paul K. (2001). 21st Century Manufacturing. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
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