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Boeing CH-47 ChinookFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia(Redirected from CH-47 Chinook)
CH-47 Chinook A U.S. Army CH-47 departs a landing zone after unloading soldiers Role Transport helicopter National origin United States Manufacturer Boeing Rotorcraft Systems First flight 21 September 1961 Introduction 1962 Status In service Primary users United States Army
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
Royal Netherlands Air Force
See CH-47 operators for others
Produced 1962–present Number built Over 1,200 as of 2012 Unit costUS$38.55 million (CH-47F, FY13) Developed from Vertol Model 107 Variants Boeing Chinook (UK variants)
The Chinook was designed and initially produced by Boeing Vertol in the early 1960s; it is now produced by Boeing Rotorcraft Systems. It is one of the few aircraft of that era – along with the fixed-wing Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft – that remain in production and frontline service, with over 1,200 built to date. The helicopter has been sold to 16 nations with the U.S. Army and the Royal Air Force (see Boeing Chinook (UK variants)) being its largest users.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Notable accidents
- 6 Specifications (CH-47F)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Design and development
Early developmentIn late 1956, the United States Department of the Army announced plans to replace the Sikorsky CH-37 Mojave, which was powered by piston engines, with a new, gas turbine-powered helicopter. Turbine engines were also a key design feature of the smaller UH-1 "Huey" utility helicopter. Following a design competition, in September 1958, a joint Army–Air Force source selection board recommended that the Army procure the Vertol medium transport helicopter. However, funding for full-scale development was not then available, and the Army vacillated on its design requirements. Some in Army Aviation thought that the new helicopter should be a light tactical transport aimed at taking over the missions of the old piston-engined Piasecki H-21 and Sikorsky H-34 helicopters, and be consequently capable of carrying about fifteen troops (one squad). Another faction in Army Aviation thought that the new helicopter should be much larger to be able to airlift a large artillery piece, and have enough internal space to carry the new MGM-31 "Pershing" Missile System.
Improved and later versions
A commercial model of the Chinook, the Boeing-Vertol Model 234, is used worldwide for logging, construction, fighting forest fires, and supporting petroleum extraction operations. On 15 December 2006, the Columbia Helicopters company of the Salem, Oregon, metropolitan area, purchased the Type certificate of the Model 234 from Boeing. The Chinook has also been licensed to be built by companies outside the United States, such as Elicotteri Meridionali (now AgustaWestland) in Italy, and Kawasaki in Japan.
The most spectacular mission in Vietnam for the Chinook was the placing of artillery batteries in perilous mountain positions inaccessible by any other means, and then keeping them resupplied with large quantities of ammunition. The 1st Cavalry Division found that its CH-47s were limited to a 7,000-pound (3,200 kg) payload when operating in the mountains, but could carry an additional 1,000 pounds (450 kg) when operating near the coast. The early Chinook design was limited by its rotor system which did not permit full use of the installed power, and users were anxious for an improved version which would upgrade this system.
As with any new piece of equipment, the Chinook presented a major problem of "customer education". Commanders and crew chiefs had to be constantly alert that eager soldiers did not overload the temptingly large cargo compartment. It would be some time before troops would be experts at using sling loads. The Chinook soon proved to be such an invaluable aircraft for artillery movement and heavy logistics that it was seldom used as an assault troop carrier. Some of the Chinook fleet were used for casualty evacuation, due to the very heavy demand for the helicopters they were usually overburdened with wounded. Perhaps the most cost effective use of the Chinook was the recovery of other downed aircraft.
IranDuring the 1970s, the United States and Iran had a strong relationship, in which the Iranian armed forces began to use many American military aircraft, most notably the F-14 Tomcat, as part of a modernization program. After an agreement signed between Boeing and Elicotteri Meridionali, the Imperial Iranian Air Force purchased 20 Elicotteri Meridionali-built CH-47Cs in 1971. The Imperial Iranian Army Aviation purchased 70 CH-47Cs from Elicotteri Meridionali between 1972 and 1976. In late 1978, Iran placed an order for an additional 50 helicopters with Elicotteri Meridionali, but that order was canceled immediately after the revolution; but 11 of them were delivered after multiple requests by Iran.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Iran made heavy use of its US-bought equipment, and lost at least 8 CH-47s during the 1980–1988 period; most notably during a clash on 15 July 1983, when an Iraqi Mirage F1 destroyed three Iranian Chinooks transporting troops to the front line, and on 25–26 February 1984, when Iraqi MiG-21 fighters shot down two examples. On 22 March 1982, in Operation Undeniable Victory, a key operation of the war, Iranian Chinooks were landed behind Iraqi lines, deployed troops that silenced their artillery, and captured an Iraqi headquarter; the attack took the Iraqi forces by surprise.
Despite the arms embargo in place upon Iran, it has managed to keep its Chinook fleet operational. Some of the Chinooks have been rebuilt by Panha. Currently 20 to 45 Chinooks are operational in Iran.
Libyan warsIn 1976, the Libyan Air Force purchased 24 Italian-built CH-47C helicopters, 14 of which were transferred to the Libyan Army during the 1990s. The Libyan Air Force recruited Western pilots and technicians to operate the CH-47 fleet.
The Libyan Chinooks flew transport and support missions into Chad to supply Libyan ground forces operating there in the 1980s. Chinooks were occasionally used to transport Libyan special forces in assault missions in northern Chad.
In 2002 Libya sold 16 helicopters to the United Arab Emirates, as due to the Western embargo and lack of funds it was difficult to maintain them. The sale to UAE was a $939 million package that included equipment, parts and training. It is not known how many CH-47s are still in existence or operational during the ongoing Libyan civil wars that started in 2011.
Falklands WarThe Chinook was used both by Argentina and the United Kingdom during the Falklands War in 1982.
The Argentine Air Force and the Argentine Army each deployed two CH-47C helicopters, which were widely used in general transport duties. Of the Army's aircraft, one was destroyed on the ground by a Harrier while the other was captured by the British and reused after the war. Both Argentine Air Force helicopters returned to Argentina and remained in service until 2002.
Three British Chinooks were destroyed on 25 May 1982 when the Atlantic Conveyor was struck by an Exocet sea-skimming missile fired by an Argentine Super Étendard. The sole surviving British Chinook, Bravo November, did outstanding service in the Falklands, even lifting 81 troops on one occasion.
Afghanistan and Iraq wars
The Chinook helicopters of several nations have participated in the Afghanistan War, including aircraft from Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Canada, and Australia. Despite the age of the Chinook, it is still in heavy demand, in part due its proven versatility and ability to operate in demanding environments such as Afghanistan.
On 6 August 2011, a Chinook crashed near Kabul killing all of the 38 aboard. It was reportedly shot down with a rocket-propelled grenade by the Taliban while attempting to assist a group of U.S. Army Rangers. The 38 were members of NATO and allied forces, including 22 Naval Special Warfare operators, five U.S. Army Aviation soldiers, three U.S. Air Force special operations personnel, and seven Afghan National Army commandos. A civilian translator and a U.S. military working dog were also killed in the crash. The crash was the single deadliest during the entire Operation Enduring Freedom campaign. The previous biggest single-day loss for American forces in Afghanistan involved a Chinook that was shot down near Kabul in Kunar Province in June 2005 with all aboard killed, including a 16-member U.S. Special Operations team.
In May 2011 an Australian Army CH-47D crashed during a resupply mission in Zabul Province, resulting in one fatality and five survivors. The helicopter was unable to be recovered and was destroyed in place. To compensate for the loss, the ADF added two ex-U.S. Army CH-47Ds to the fleet which are expected to be in service until the introduction of the CH-47Fs in 2016.
Disaster relief and other roles
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Three Japanese CH-47s were used to cool Reactors 3 and 4 of the Fukushima Nuclear power-plant with sea water after the 9.0 earthquake in 2011; to protect the crew from heightened radiation levels, lead plates were attached to the floor.
HC-1BThe pre-1962 designation for Model 114 development aircraft that would be re-designated CH-47 Chinook.
CH-47AThe all-weather, medium-lift CH-47A Chinook was powered initially by Lycoming T55-L-5 engines rated at 2,200 horsepower (1,640 kW) but then replaced by the T55-L-7 rated at 2,650 hp (1,980 kW) engines or T55-L-7C engines rated at 2,850 hp (2,130 kW). The CH-47A had a maximum gross weight of 33,000 lb (15,000 kg). allowing for a maximum payload of approximately 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) Initial delivery of the CH-47A Chinook to the U.S. Army was in August 1962. A total of 349 were built.
ACH-47AThe ACH-47A was originally known as the Armed/Armored CH-47A (or A/ACH-47A). It was officially designated ACH-47A as a U.S. Army Attack Cargo Helicopter, and unofficially referred to as Guns A Go-Go. Four CH-47A helicopters were converted to gunships by Boeing Vertol in late 1965. Three were assigned to the 53rd Aviation Detachment in South Vietnam for testing, with the remaining one retained in the U.S. for weapons testing. By 1966, the 53rd was redesignated the 1st Aviation Detachment (Provisional) and attached to the 228th Assault Support Helicopter Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). By 1968, only one gunship remained, and logistical concerns prevented more conversions. It was returned to the United States, and the program stopped.
The ACH-47A carried five M60D 7.62 × 51 mm machine guns or M2HB .50 caliber machine guns, provided by the XM32 and XM33 armament subsystems, two M24A1 20 mm cannons, two XM159B/XM159C 19-Tube 2.75-inch (70 mm) rocket launchers or sometimes two M18/M18A1 7.62 × 51 mm gun pods, and a single M75 40 mm grenade launcher in the XM5/M5 armament subsystem (more commonly seen on the UH-1 series of helicopters). The surviving aircraft, Easy Money, has been restored and is on display at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama.[verification needed]
CH-47BThe CH-47B was an interim solution while Boeing worked on a more substantially improved CH-47C. The CH-47B was powered by two Lycoming T55-L-7C 2,850 shp (2,130 kW) engines. It featured a blunted rear rotor pylon, redesigned asymmetrical rotor blades, and strakes along the rear ramp and fuselage to improve flying characteristics. It could be equipped with two door-mounted M60D 7.62 mm NATO machine guns on the M24 armament subsystem and a ramp-mounted M60D using the M41 armament subsystem. Some CH-47 "bombers" were equipped to drop tear gas or napalm from the rear cargo ramp onto NLF (aka Việt Cộng) bunkers. The CH-47 could be equipped with a hoist and cargo hook. The Chinook proved especially valuable in "Pipe Smoke" aircraft recovery missions. The "Hook" recovered about 12,000 aircraft valued at over $3.6 billion during the war. 108 were built.
The type was unable to receive FAA certification to engage in civil activities due to the non-redundant hydraulic flight boost system drive. A redesign of the hydraulic boost system drive was incorporated in the succeeding CH-47D, allowing that model to achieve certification as the Boeing Model 234. A total of 233 CH-47Cs were built. Canada bought a total of eight CH-47Cs, deliveries of the type began in 1974. Receiving the Canadian designation "CH-147", these were fitted with a power hoist above the crew door, other changes included a flight engineer station in the rear cabin, Boeing referred to the configuration as the "Super C". The CH-47C saw wide use during the Vietnam war, eventually replacing the older H-21 Shawnee in the combat assault support role.
The Netherlands acquired all seven of the Canadian Forces' surviving CH-147s and upgraded them to CH-47D standard. Six more new-build CH-47Ds were delivered in 1995 for a total of 13. The Dutch CH-47D feature a number of improvements over U.S. Army CH-47Ds, including a long nose for Bendix weather radar, a "glass cockpit", and improved T55-L-714 engines. As of 2011, the Netherlands shall upgrade 11 of these which will be updated to the CH-47F standard at a later date. As of 2011, Singapore has 18 CH-47D/SDs, which includes twelve "Super D" Chinooks, in service. In 2008, Canada purchased 6 CH-47Ds from the U.S. for the Canadian Helicopter Force Afghanistan for $252 million. With 1 CH-47D loss, the remaining 5 CH-47D were returned by Canada in 2011 after their mission in Afghanistan was over.[clarification needed]
MH-47EThe MH-47E has been used by U.S. Army Special Operations. Beginning with the E-model prototype manufactured in 1991, there were a total of 26 Special Operations Aircraft produced. All aircraft were assigned to 2–160th SOAR(A) "Nightstalkers", home based at Fort Campbell Kentucky. E models were conversions from existing CH-47C model airframes. The MH-47E has similar capabilities as the MH-47D, but includes an increased fuel capacity similar to the CH-47SD and terrain following/terrain avoidance radar.
In 1995, the Royal Air Force ordered eight Chinook HC3s, effectively a low-cost version of the MH-47E for the special operations role. They were delivered in 2001 but never entered operational service due to technical issues with their avionics fit, unique to the HC3. In 2008, work started to downgrade the HC3s to HC2 standard, to enable them to enter service.
In February 2007, the Royal Netherlands Air Force became the first international customer, ordering six CH-47Fs, expanding their fleet to 17. On 10 August 2009, Canada signed a contract for 15 extensively modified and upgraded CH-47Fs for the Royal Canadian Air Force, later delivered in 2013–14 with the Canadian designation CH-147F. On 15 December 2009, Britain announced its Future Helicopter Strategy, including the purchase of 24 new CH-47Fs to be delivered from 2012. Australia ordered seven CH-47Fs in March 2010 to replace its six CH-47Ds between 2014 and 2017. In late 2015, Australia has sought permission to order three more CH-47Fs. In September 2015 India approved purchase of 15 CH-47F Chinooks. On 7 November 2016, Singapore announced that the CH-47F would replace its older Chinooks, which had been in service since 1994. This would enable the Republic of Singapore Air Force to meet its requirements for various operations, including Search and Rescue (SAR), Aeromedical Evacuation (AME), and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations.
A CH-47F Block 2 is planned to be introduced after 2020. The Block 2 aims for a payload of 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) with 4,000 ft (1,200 m) and 95 °F (35 °C) high and hot hover performance, eventually increased up to 6,000 ft (1,800 m), to carry the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle; maximum takeoff weight would be raised to 24,500 kg (54,000 lb). It features the composite-based advanced Chinook rotor blade (ACRB) (derived from the cancelled RAH-66 Comanche) 20 percent more powerful Honeywell T55-715 engines, and the active parallel actuator system (APAS); the APAS enhances the digital advanced flight-control system, providing an exact torque split between the rotors for greater efficiency. A new fuel system combines the three fuel cells in each sponson into one larger fuel cell and eliminating intra-cell fuel transfer hardware, reducing weight by 90 kg (200 lb) and increasing fuel capacity. Electrical capacity is increased by three 60 kVA generators.
The U.S. Army plans for a Block 3 upgrade after 2025, which could include a new 6,000 shp-class engine with boosted power capacity of the transmission and drive train developed under the future affordable turbine engine (FATE) program and a lengthened fuselage. The Future Vertical Lift program plans to begin replacing the Army's rotorcraft fleet in the mid-2030s, initially focusing on medium-lift helicopters, thus the CH-47 is planned to be in service beyond 2060, over 100 years after first entering service.
The new modernization program improves MH-47D and MH-47E Special Operations Chinooks to the MH-47G design specs. A total of 25 MH-47E and 11 MH-47D aircraft were upgraded by the end of 2003. In 2002 the army announced plans to expand the Special Operations Aviation Regiment via an additional 12 MH-47G helicopters. The final MH-47G Chinook was delivered to the U.S. Army Special Operations Command on 10 February 2011. Modernization of MH-47D/E Chinooks to MH-47G standard is due for completion in 2015.
The Japan Defense Agency ordered 54 aircraft of which 39 were for the JGSDF and 15 were for the JASDF. Boeing supplied flyable aircraft, to which Kawasaki added full avionics, interior, and final paint. The CH-47J model Chinook (N7425H) made its first flight in January 1986, and it was sent to Kawasaki in April. Boeing began delivering five CH-47J kits in September 1985 for assembly at Kawasaki.
HH-47On 9 November 2006, the HH-47, a new variant of the Chinook based on the MH-47G, was selected by the U.S. Air Force as the winner of the Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR-X) competition. Four development HH-47s were to be built, with the first of 141 production aircraft planned to enter service in 2012. However, in February 2007 the contract award was protested and the GAO ordered the CSAR-X project to be re-bid. The CSAR-X program was again terminated in 2009. In February 2010, the USAF announced plans to replace aging HH-60G helicopters, and deferred secondary combat search and rescue requirements calling for a larger helicopter.
Other export models
The export version of the CH-47C Chinook for the Italian Army was designated "CH-47C Plus".
The HH-47D is a search and rescue version for the Republic of Korea Air Force. The CH-47DG is an upgraded version of the CH-47C for Greece. While the CH-47SD (also known as the "Super D") is a modified variant of the CH-47D, with extended range fuel tanks and higher payload carrying capacity; the CH-47SD is currently in use by the Republic of Singapore Air Force, Hellenic Army and the Republic of China Army.
Eight CH-47Cs were delivered to the Canadian Forces in 1974. These helicopters were in Canadian service until 1991, with the designation CH-147. These aircraft were subsequently sold to the Netherlands and are now operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force as CH-47Ds. Older aircraft will be phased out by 2020 and replaced by CH-47F-NL models.
- Model 234LR (long range): Commercial transport helicopter. The Model 234LR can be fitted out as an all-passenger, all-cargo, or cargo/passenger transport helicopter.
- Model 234ER (extended range): Commercial transport version.
- Model MLR (multi-purpose long range): Commercial transport version.
- Model 234UT (utility transport): Utility transport helicopter.
- Model 414: The Model 414 is the international export version of the CH-47D. It is also known as the CH-47D International Chinook.
DerivativesIn 1969, work on the experimental Model 347 was begun. It was a CH-47A with a lengthened fuselage, four-blade rotors, detachable wings mounted on top of the fuselage and other changes. It first flew on 27 May 1970 and was evaluated for a few years.
In 1973, the Army contracted Boeing to design a "Heavy Lift Helicopter" (HLH), designated XCH-62A. It appeared to be a scaled-up CH-47 without a conventional body, in a configuration similar to the S-64 Skycrane (CH-54 Tarhe), but the project was canceled in 1975. The program was restarted for test flights in the 1980s and was again not funded by Congress. The scaled-up model of the HLH was scrapped in late 2005 at Fort Rucker, Alabama.
OperatorsMain article: List of Boeing CH-47 Chinook operators
- Argentina (former)
- India (15 on order)
- Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Republic of Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- South Vietnam (former)
- Turkey (6-2016)
- United Kingdom - see Boeing Chinook (UK variants)
- United Arab Emirates
- United States
- Vietnam (former)
- On 14 July 1977, a U.S. Army CH-47 helicopter was shot down by North Korean forces after straying into the DMZ.
- On 11 September 1982, at an airshow in Mannheim, Germany, a United States Army Chinook (serial number 74-22292) carrying parachutists crashed, killing 46 people. The crash was later found to have been caused by an accumulation of ground walnut shell grit used for cleaning machinery, which blocked lubrication from reaching transmission bearings. The accident resulted in the eventual discontinuation of the use of walnut grit as a cleaning agent.
- On 4 February 1985, a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) CH-47C (A15-001) crashed into Perseverance Dam, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. The RAF exchange pilot, Flight Lieutenant Charles 'Chas' Chubb was rescued from the submerged cockpit but died later in hospital.
- On 6 November 1986, a British International Helicopters Chinook crashed on approach to Sumburgh Airport, Shetland Islands resulting in the loss of 45 lives and the withdrawal of the Chinook from crew-servicing flights in the North Sea.
- On 1 March 1991, Major Marie Therese Rossi Cayton was killed when her Chinook helicopter crashed after colliding with a microwave tower during a dust storm. She was the first American woman to fly in combat during Desert Storm in 1991.
- On 2 June 1994, a RAF Chinook crashed killing 25 passengers and 4 crew in Scotland.
- On 29 May 2001, a ROK Army CH-47D installing a sculpture onto Olympic Bridge in Seoul, South Korea failed to unlatch the sculpture. The helicopter's rotors struck the monument; then the fuselage hit and broke into two. One section crashed onto the bridge in flames and the other fell into the river. All three crew members on board died.
- On 21 February 2002, a U.S. Army Special Forces MH-47E crashed at sea in the Philippines, killing all ten U.S. soldiers on board. No enemy fire was involved.
- On 11 September 2004, a Greek Army CH-47SD crashed into the sea off Mount Athos. All 17 people on board were killed, including four senior figures in the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
- On 7 January 2013, a BV-234 N241CH owned by Columbia Helicopters, Inc., crashed shortly after taking off from the airport in Pucallpa, Coronel Portillo Province, Peru. All seven crew members were killed.
Specifications (CH-47F)General characteristics
- Crew: three (pilot, copilot, flight engineer or loadmaster)
- 33–55 troops or
- 24 litters and 3 attendants or
- 24,000 lb (10,886 kg) cargo
- Length: 52 ft. fuselage, 98 ft 10 in with rotors (30.1 m)
- Fuselage width: 12 ft 5 in (3.78 m))
- Rotor diameter: 60 ft 0 in (18.3 m)
- Height: 18 ft 11 in (5.7 m)
- Disc area: 5,600 ft2 (520 m2)
- Empty weight: 24,578 lb (11,148 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 50,000 lb (22,680 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Lycoming T55-GA-714A turboshaft, 4,733 hp (3,529 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 160 kt (184 mph, 296 km/h)
- Range: 400 nmi (450 mi, 741 km)
- Combat radius: 200 nmi (230 mi, 370 km)
- Ferry range: 1,216 nmi (1,400 mi, 2,252 km)
- Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6100 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,522 ft/min (7.73 m/s)
- Disc loading: 9.5 lb/ft2 (47 kg/m2)
- Power/mass: 0.28 hp/lb (460 W/kg)
- Up to 3 pintle-mounted medium machine guns (1 on loading ramp and 2 at shoulder windows), generally 7.62 mm (0.308 in) M240/FN MAG machine guns
- Rockwell Collins Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) (MH-47G/CH-47F)
M240 machine gun emplacement on the loading ramp, as well as another partly visible on the right shoulder window
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- List of active United States military aircraft
- List of aviation shootdowns and accidents during the Iraq War
- "Boeing Marks 50 Years of Delivering Chinook Helicopters". Boeing. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
- United States of America. Naval Training Equipment Center. Department of the Navy. Recognition Study Cards – US and Foreign Aircraft. Device 5E14H. LSN 6910-LL-C006462. Orlando, Florida. 1982. 55 Cards. Annotation: 2252 kilometers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- CH-47D/F, MH-47E/G, CH-47 history, and Model 234 Chinook history pages on Boeing.com
- ICH-47 on Leonardocompany.com
- CH-47A/B/C, ACH-47A, CH-47D/F and CH-47 Chinook pages on Army.mil
- CH-47F Chinook transport helicopter on airrecognition.com
- CH-47 page on GlobalSecurity.org
- CH-47 page on Vectorsite.net
- "Boeing's New Combat-Ready CH-47F Chinook Helicopter Fielded to First US Army Unit"
- Italian Chinooks – CASR Article
- The Kopp-Etchells Effect – CH-47 Night Landings in Afghanistan. Michael Yon online magazine
- The short film STAFF FILM REPORT 66-2A (1966) is available for free download at the Internet Archive