Saturday, April 25, 2015

Wikipedia:2015 Nepal earthquake

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2015 Nepal earthquake

2015 Nepal earthquake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2015 Nepal earthquake
2015 Nepal earthquake is located in Nepal
2015 Nepal earthquake
Date 25 April 2015
Origin time 6:11:26 UTC[1]
Magnitude 7.8 Mw,[1]
Depth 15.0 kilometers (9 mi)[1]
Epicenter 28.147°N 84.708°ECoordinates: 28.147°N 84.708°E[1]
Type Thrust[1]
Areas affected Nepal
Northern India
Max. intensity IX (Violent) [1]
Aftershocks 6.6 MW April 25 at 06:45[2]
Casualties 1,523 deaths
1,700+ injuries[3]
The 2015 Nepal earthquake was a magnitude 7.8 (Mw) earthquake that occurred at 11:56 NST (6:11:26 UTC) on Saturday 25 April 2015, with the epicenter approximately 29 km (18 mi) east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal, and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km (9.3 mi).[1] It is the most powerful earthquake to have hit Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. At least 1,523 people are known to have died as a result of the earthquake with casualties reported in Nepal and adjoining areas of India, China, and Bangladesh. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at Kathmandu Durbar Square.


Tectonic setting

Nepal lies towards the southern limit of the diffuse collisional boundary where the Indian Plate underthrusts the Eurasian Plate.[4] The convergence rate between the plates in central Nepal is about 45 mm (1.8 in) per year. The location, magnitude and focal mechanism of the earthquake suggest that it was caused by a slip along the Main Frontal Thrust.[1] The earthquake's effects were amplified in Kathmandu as it is sited on the Kathmandu Basin, which contains up to 600 m (2,000 ft) of sedimentary rocks, representing the infilling of a lake.[5]


Map of the earthquake and its aftershocks
The earthquake occurred on 25 April 2015 at 11:56 NST (6:11:26 UTC) at a depth of approximately 15 km (9.3 mi), with its epicenter approximately 34 km (21 mi) east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal, lasting approximately twenty seconds.[6]
The earthquake was initially reported as 7.5 Mw by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) before it was quickly upgraded to 7.9 Mw and finally downgraded to 7.8 Mw. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) reported the earthquake's magnitude to be 8.1 Mw. The India Meteorological Department said two powerful quakes were registered in Nepal at 06:11 UTC and 06:45 UTC. The first quake measured 7.9 points on the open-ended Richter scale and its epicenter was identified at a distance of 80 km to the northwest of the capital Kathmandu. The second earthquake was somewhat less powerful at 6.6 points on the Richter scale. The seismic focus lay at a depth of 10 km (6.2 mi) below the earth's surface. Bharatpur was the nearest major city to the earthquake, 53 km (33 mi) from the epicenter; this second earthquake occurred 81 km (50 mi) northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Over twenty eight aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater occurred following the initial earthquake, including one of magnitude 6.6 Mw, which occurred a few minutes after the earthquake.[7]


2015 Nepal earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
According to the "Did You Feel It?" ("DYFI") responses on the USGS website, the intensity in Kathmandu was IX (Violent).[1] Tremors were felt in the neighboring Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Odisha, northern Andhra Pradesh,[8] and in the Indian capital New Delhi. Minor cracks in the walls of houses were reported in Odisha. Minor quakes were registered as far as Kochi in Kerala state. The intensity in Patna was V (Moderate).[9] The intensity was IV (Light) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, according to the "DYFI" responses on the USGS site.[1] The earthquake was also experienced in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China,[10] Pakistan,[11] and Bhutan.[1]


Death toll
Nepal Nepal 1,457 [12]
India India 52 [13]
China China 12 [14]
Bangladesh Bangladesh 2 [11]
United States United States 1 [15]
Total 1,524
There were at least 1,523 dead and more than 500 injured. At least 1457 died in Nepal while 52 died and over 200 were injured in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, 12 died in Tibet and 2 died in Bangladesh.[12][13][14][11]
The earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing at least 13 people at South Base Camp;[16] an Indian Army mountaineering team reportedly recovered 18 bodies.[17] Google engineer Dan Fredinburg, climbing with three other company employees and documenting the trek on social media, was among the casualties.[15] From 700 to more than 1,000 people were thought to be on the mountain at the time, with at least 30 injured and an unknown number missing or trapped at higher altitudes.[16][17][18][19] A helicopter rescue operation was set to begin Sunday morning, April 26.[20] Mount Everest is approximately 220 kilometres (140 mi) east of the epicentre.
Buildings in the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Kathmandu Durbar Square reportedly collapsed,[6] as did the Dharahara tower, built in 1832, killing at least 180 people,[21][22][23][24] and Manakamana Temple located in Gorkha. The northern side of Janaki Mandir and Patan Durbar Square has been reported to be damaged.[25] All international air traffic has been cancelled but there were no reported deaths at Tribhuvan International Airport.


As a rapid response Facebook launched and tested their newest application feature on Facebook called Facebook Safety Check. Nepalese people used this feature to the most and informed about their status by using this application.


Buildings were evacuated in Kolkata, India
  •  BangladeshSheikh Hasina, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh expressed profound shock at the loss of lives in the earthquake,[26] declared Bangladesh’s willingness to help Nepal tackle the catastrophe, and asserted that the government of Bangladesh would provide medical and humanitarian assistance to Nepal.[27]
  •  Bhutan — Bhutanese Economic Affairs Minister, Norbu Wangchuk, expressed his condolences and solidarity with the people of Nepal. Wangchuk said that the celebration of World Intellectual Property was to be suspended in solidarity with the people of Nepal. Wangchuk added that there had been no major damages in Bhutan.[28]
  •  Canada — Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement offering “heartfelt condolences to the people of Nepal and northern India”, and “wish[ing] a speedy recovery to all those injured”. The statement clarified that Canadian officials in the region were “working with Nepalese and Indian authorities” to locate and ensure the safety of any Canadians in the area, while also “cooperat[ing] with international partners [to] assess the needs of the affected populations to determine how Canada may most effectively assist with the disaster if asked to help”.[29] No proactive offer of assistance was made.
  •  China – Chinese Premier Li Keqiang sent messages of condolences to the Prime Minister of Nepal, Sushil Koirala, and pledged to offer assistance.[30] Xi Jinping, the President of China, sent his condolences to Nepalese President Ram Baran Yadav and pledged to offer assistance.[31] The China International Search and Rescue Team (CISAR) is scheduled to deploy 68 of its members to Nepal via chartered plane in the early morning of 26 April, Beijing time.[32]
  •  Egypt —Egypt expressed condolences to Nepal's government and people in an official statement on Saturday 25 April, stressing that it stood with Nepal in its diversity, paid respect to the victims, and wished the wounded people a rapid recovery.[33]
  •  Germany — On the day of the quake, the government of Germany pledged to provide assistance.[34]
  •  India — Within 15 minutes of the quake,[35] Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi had responded, directing immediate dispatch of relief and rescue teams, including medical teams to Nepal. By that same afternoon, ten teams of National Disaster Response Force had already arrived in Nepal; two additional Indian Air Force planes soon departed to join them with further aid.[36]
  •  Israel — Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu dispatched a search and rescue team that included physicians to Nepal, and expressed Israel's willingness to assist in any way possible.[37]. Israeli Interior Minister Gilad Erdan, also affirmed that Israel would assist the families of 24 surrogate babies, 9 of them born prematurely, by evacuating them to India via helicopter, and flying them back to Israel to continue necessary bureaucratic procedures.[38]
  •  ItalyItaly’s Foreign Ministry has made 300,000 euros available for emergency aid to Nepal.[39]
  •  Japan — Within half a day of the quake, Japan had offered emergency assistance. The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) are sending 70 experts; they are scheduled to depart from Narita International Airport on 26 April, and will serve in Nepal for 7 days. The team includes experts from the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the National Police Agency, and JICA, along with rescuers, search and rescue dog handlers, communication specialists, physicians, and field coordinators. The Association of Medical Doctors of Asia (AMDA) and Shapla Neer announced on SNS that they have begun coordinating their emergency assistance.[40]
  •  Malaysia – Malaysia’s Foreign Minister Anifah Aman said his country ready to extend assistance to Nepal once the access to the Tribhuvan International Airport been reopened.[41]
  •  Monaco — On the day of the quake, Monaco indicated that it planned to send aid to Nepal "in the coming hours".[39]
  •  Norway – On 25 April, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs indicated that Norway would contribute NOK 30 million to Nepal.[42]
  •  Pakistan – In a statement issued by the Foreign Ministry, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif expressed "his deep shock at the reports of massive earthquake that has caused devastation in Nepal and Northern India this morning" and, on behalf of the government and people of Pakistan, expressed "heartfelt condolences and sympathies ... on the tragedy that has caused loss of precious lives and properties". The statement also indicated that Pakistan's diplomatic missions in India and Nepal had been directed "to approach their respective host governments to ascertain the damages caused and the requirement of relief assistance", while the National Disaster Management Authority of Pakistan stood by.[43] Later that day, Pakistan announced that it was sending four C-130 planes packed with life-saving emergency equipment—including a 30-bed hospital, hundreds of beds and tents, and assorted relief items—along with emergency personnel including physicians, and special search and rescue teams with sniffer dogs.[44]
  •  Russia — On 25 April, Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed condolences to President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav, in connection with the loss of lives and destruction in various parts of Nepal due to the quake. Russia's Ministry for Emergency Situations offered aid to Nepal in addressing the aftermath of the earthquake,[45] and assembled a team of over 50 highly skilled rescue workers with "expansive experience of operations in … areas struck by earthquakes", including China, Haiti, and Turkey. The team was supplied with "top-notch equipment enabling it to work autonomously", and made ready to depart for Nepal "immediately".[46]
  •  Singapore – On the day of the quake, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong penned a letter of condolence to Nepal's Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, and dispatched a search and rescue team consisting of 55 members of the Singapore Civil Defence Force; officers from Singapore's police forces, including the Gurkha Contingent, also prepared to deploy disaster relief teams to the area. The government of Singapore "kick-started" the Singapore Red Cross' disaster relief drive with a contribution of $100,000.[47]
  •  Spain — On the day of the quake, the government of Spain pledged to provide assistance.[34]
  •  Sri Lanka — The Government of Sri Lanka took steps to provide emergency relief to those affected by the earthquake in Nepal. On 25 April, special Sri Lanka Air Force flights departed for Nepal with a stock of emergency relief supplies, along with groups of specialist physicians, other medical staff, and medicines.[48]
  •  United Kingdom – UK Prime Minister David Cameron expressed condolences and offered assistance to Nepal.[49] On 25 April, the UK dispatched a team of humanitarian aid experts to the region, in order to determine the best approach to assisting those affected.[50]
  •  United States of America – On the day of the quake, the USA sent aid and released USD 1 million to assist with immediate needs.[51]


See also


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